Iran and Iraq: Religion, War, and Geopolitics (Understanding

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In geopolitical terms, this means that today's enemy could be tomorrow's friend and despite vastly different energy portfolios the world will not be replacing oil any time soon so it's better to learn how to deal with it and the problems it causes. Palestine, june 1967: Israel attacks a USA warship, the USS Liberty, killing 34 sailors Egypt, 1970: Israel carries out air raids along the Nile killing hundreds of Egyptian civilians hoping to incite anti-Nasser uprising, instead triggering a massive rearmament of Egypt by the Soviet Union Jordan, september 1970: PFLP terrorists hijack a TWA jet, a Swissair jet and a Pan Am jet and blow them up in Zarka Jordan, september 1970: After a series of assassination attempts, King Hussein of Jordan, fearing for his own country's stability, orders a massive expulsion of Palestinians that results in ten days of civil war with 200 Syrian tanks invading Jordan and 5,000 deaths ("black september") Palestine, september 1970: the chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Yassir Arafat, settles in Beirut, Lebanon Egypt, september 1970: Nasser dies and is buried in one of the largest funerals ever, while his deputy Anwar Sadat becomes the new president of Egypt Jordan, september 1970: The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine carries out simultaneous hijackings to Jordan (Dawson's Field) of TWA, Swissair and BOAC planes for a total of over 300 hostages ("Skyjack Sunday"), which are swapped with Leila Khaled, the leader of the PFLP cell captured in Britain Syria, november 1970: Hafez Assad, shiite leader of the military wing of the Baath Party, overthrows the president of Syria Europe, May 1972: Black September hijacks a Belgian airplane and lands it in Israel demanding the release of prisoners, but Israel storms the plane Germany, september 1972: Palestinian terrorists of the Black September faction kill 11 Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics, a drama that is televised live worldwide USA, 1972: The CIA hires Bashir Gemayel, the son of the Lebanese politician Pierre Gemayel who is working in Washington Sudan, march 1973: Black September kills three Western diplomats in Sudan, including the USA ambassador to Sudan London, 1973: Venezuelan-born terrorist Ilich Ramirez Sanchez ("Carlos the Jackal"), who studied in Russia and was trained by Haddad, performs spectacular terrorist actions on behalf of Palestinian terrorist groups Saudi Arabia, january 1976: A bomb blows up a Lebanese flight over Saudi Arabia, killing all 82 passengers Palestine, july 1976: Israeli commandos storm an Air France plane hijacked by Palestinian terrorists in Entebbe, killing all the Palestinians and scores of Ugandan soldiers that were protecting them, and freeing 102 hostages Israel, may 1977: Former Irgun terrorist Menachem Begin and the right-wing Likud party win elections, defeating the Labor Party that had ruled Israel since its founding Lebanon, june 1978: Israel invades the southern part of Lebanon to uproot the PLO, killing more than 1,000 civilians, but then withdraws Palestine, september 1978: The Camp David agreement brokered by president Jimmy Carter of the USA prescribes a timetable for solving the Palestinian issue, but Jordan refuses to negotiate on behalf of Arafat and Israel refuses to negotiate directly with a terrorist like Arafat Israel, march 1979: Sadat of Egypt and of Israel sign a peace treaty, Israel returns the Sinai peninsula to Egypt and Egypt enters the orbit of the USA Lebanon, 1979: the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran galvanizes Islamic extremists, especially shiite Arabs Syria, 1980: galvanized by the Islamic Revolution in Iran, Muslims riot in Aleppo, Homs and Hama Iraq, june 1981: Israel bombs the Iraqi nuclear reactor built by France, to prevent Iraq from building a nuclear weapon Lebanon, july 1981: Israel bombs multi-story apartment buildings in Beirut to kill Arafat and the PLO leadership, killing 300 civilians Egypt, october 1981: Sadat is assassinated by soldiers led by Khalid al Islambouli, inspired by radical Muslim organization (the Egyptian Islamic Jihad) of Egyptian surgeon Ayman al-Zawahri, and is succeeded by vice-president Hosni Mubarak Lebanon, december 1981: a member of Islamic Dawa Party blows himself up to attack the Iraqi embassy in Beirut, Lebanon (first suicide bomber) Syria, february 1982: Assad orders the bombing of Hama, one of Syria's major cities, for 27 days, killing more than 20,000 people, to stem an uprising of the Muslim Brotherhood Lebanon, june 1982: In retaliation for an assassination attempt by Abu Nidal and Iraqi agents on the Israeli ambassador in Britain, Israel invades Lebanon trapping the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and its leader Yassir Arafat in Beirut (despite the fact that Abu Nidal is not part of the PLO) Lebanon, 1982: Hezbollah (Party of God) is founded by a radical shiite group with the mission of creating an Iranian-style Islamic republic in Lebanon, supported by Iranian revolutionary guards Lebanon, august 1982: Arafat and his forces are allowed to leave Beirut, while the USA promises protection for the Palestinian civilians left in the refugee camps of Lebanon Lebanon, september 1982: Bashir Gemayel is assassinated by Syrian agents, and in retaliation Israeli-backed Christian militiamen of the Phalange under Elie Hobeika with the support of Israeli troops (under the command of Ariel Sharon) massacre 1,000 unarmed Palestinian and Lebanese civilians in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps in west Beirut Lebanon, september 1982: At the battle of Shouf a USA warship rescues Michel Aoun's Lebanese army that is being defeated by a coalition of Walid Jumblatt's Druze militia, Syrian troops, PLO guerrillas and Iranian Revolutionary Guards Lebanon, september 1982: The USA sends marines to restore order in Lebanon, followed by French and Italian troops Lebanon, april 1983: suicide commandos directed by Imad Mughniyeh (Mugniyah) blow up the US embassy, killing 63 people Palestine, july 1983: the Mufti of Jerusalem issues a fatwa to kill Assad in retaliation to his campaign against the Palestine Liberation Organization.

Pages: 80

Publisher: Rosen Publishing Group; 1 edition (September 1, 2009)

ISBN: 143585280X

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