By Frank McLynn

If now not for the occasions of 1759, the whole historical past of the area might were varied. referred to as the "Year of Victories," 1759 was once the fourth 12 months of the Seven Years, or the French-and-Indian conflict and defeat of the French not just prepared the ground for the worldwide hegemony of the English language but in addition made the emergence of the us attainable. Guiding us via England's conquests (and frequently tremendous slim victories) in India, North the US, and the Caribbean, Frank McLynn (Wagons West) controversially means that the start of the nice British Empire used to be extra as a result of the success than of rigorous making plans. in addition to stirring depictions of the 2 maximum battles of 1759, Quebec and Quiberon, McLynn comprises anecdotes of the highbrow and cultural leaders of the day—Swedenborg, Hume, Voltaire—and interweaves fundamental resources, starting from fabric within the Vatican records to oral histories of local american citizens, in an excellent chronicle of a pivotal yr in global history.

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By the outbreak of the Seven Years War in 1756 this had more than doubled to over 70,000. By contrast, the much more heterogeneous population of the thirteen British colonies along the Atlantic seaboard (where oligarchs and adventurers mingled with deportees, vagabonds, beggars and indentured labourers who were slaves in all but name) amounted to one million inhabitants by 1740. On paper the British colonists should have overwhelmed their French counterparts, but France dealt with the threat from the ‘Anglo-Saxons’ by penning them behind the Allegheny Mountains and expanding southwards and westwards.

He sacked Hyderabad in a campaign that carried Delhi’s sway to its farthest point south, but his successors proved utterly unable to hold the unwieldy imperial structure together. At his death Aurangzeb left no fewer than seventeen legitimate claimants to his throne – sons, grandsons, great-grandsons – and the result was a predictable chaos. For a time the Sayyid brothers, Husain Ali, Governor of Patna, and Abdullah, Governor of Allahabad, were the kingmakers, but one of their protégés, Muhammad Shah (who ruled from 1719 to 1748) turned the tables on the brothers, encouraging a revolt in the Deccan and engineering their downfall.

Rogers’ Rangers 11. Quiberon Bay Conclusion Sources Bibliography Index TIMELINE 12 December 1758–16 February 1759: French besiege Madras 20 December 1758: Bougainville arrives at Versailles on mission for Montcalm 13 January 1759: British fleet arrives at Martinique for intended conquest of the island 5 February: Choiseul interviews Bonnie Prince Charlie in Paris 13 April: French defeat Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick at Bergen near Frankfurt 1 May: British complete conquest of Gaudeloupe 13 May: Bougainville arrives in Quebec 4 June: Wolfe leaves Louisbourg for the St Lawrence river 27 June: General Amherst takes Fort Ticonderoga 23 July: Frederick the Great fights the battle of Kay in Brandenburg, Poland 25 July: British capture Fort Niagara 31 July: French repulse Wolfe and the British at Montmorenci Gorge, Quebec 1 August: Ferdinand of Brunswick and the British under Lord Sackville defeat the French at Minden, West Germany 12 August: Frederick the Great defeated at Kunersdorf, East Prussia by the Austrians and Russians 18–19 August: Admiral Boscawen destroys French Mediterranean fleet at Lagos, Portugal 13 September: Wolfe defeats Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham 5 October: Robert Rogers and his Rangers destroy the Abenaki village of St Francis (Quebec Province) 20 November: Admiral Hawke defeats the French Brest fleet at Quiberon, Britanny 20–21 November: Frederick the Great fights battle of Maxden, near Dresden, Saxony Outstanding literary productions of 1759: Candide by Voltaire Rasselas by Samuel Johnson The Theory of Moral Sentiments by Adam Smith Gl’Innamorati by Carlo Goldoni The Sublime and the Beautiful (2nd ed) by Edmund Burke The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy (Part One) by Laurence Sterne ILLUSTRATIONS 1.

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