By Arthur T. Bergerud, Michael W. Gratson

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Extra resources for Adaptive Strategies and Population Ecology of Northern Grouse (v. 1 & 2)

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They cannot, however, be used to suggest that the differences in behavior were causing densities to change. Similarly, a number of authors have reported changes in behavior that relate to changes in density (Kluyver & Tinbergen 1953, King 1955, Tompa 1964, Sadlier 1965, Watson 1965). These authors suggest that the intensity of elimination of potential breeders was determined by the territorial behavior of other individuals, but their data cannot be used to support this. Other researchers examined behavior and social interaction in general, concluding a correlation with population density.

I quantified the interactions of each chick with its mirror image weekly from the age of 1 week to 2 months, by placing a mirror in the brood box for 5 minutes and recording the frequency of hard pecking and shadowboxing for all members of the brood (Theberge & Bendell 1980). In 1971 and 1972 approximately 26 males and 39 females resided on Moresby Island. At that time, many of the hens had not nested, suggesting a female- DEMOGRAPHY AND BEHAVIOR OF BLUE GROUSE 35 dominated, monogamous system. To test this hypothesis, 20 males and five replacement yearlings were removed from their territories for the Moresby population in 1976.

Summary and composite of behavioral responses shown by blue grouse, compared among study populations, 1967-68. 1967). The second part of my null hypothesis served to examine a prediction of one such model. Chitty (1967) suggested that population changes were a direct result of selection for different genetic types (genotypes) in a population. " This means that "supposedly more aggressive individuals in the stationary or declining populations" are present. Two criteria must be met to test these ideas: there must be measurable numerical change, and critical measurement of aggressive behavior must be possible.

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