By S C Bhatia

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5. Dams create large lakes that may have adverse effects on earth tectonic system causing intense earthquakes. 6. Hydroelectric plants rarely can be erected near load centers, requiring long transmission lines. 4 Solar power Solar power involves using solar cells to convert sunlight into electricity, using sunlight hitting solar thermal panels to convert sunlight to heat water or air, using sunlight hitting a parabolic mirror to heat water (producing steam) or using sunlight entering windows for passive solar heating of a building.

The electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun covers a very large range of wavelengths, from radiowaves through the infrared, visible and ultraviolet to X-rays and gamma rays. 5 µm. 7 to 4 µm. The total radiation emitted by the sun in unit time remains practically constant. The variations actually observed in association with solar phenomena like sunspots, prominences and solar flares are mainly confined to the extreme ultraviolet end of the solar spectrum and to the radiowaves. The contribution of these variations to the total energy emitted is extremely small and can be neglected in solar energy applications.

Dependence on fossil fuels from volatile regions or countries creates energy security risks for dependent countries. 5. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, unsustainable resources, which will eventually decline in production and become exhausted, with dire consequences to societies that remain highly dependent on them. 6. Extraction of fossil fuels results in extensive environmental degradation, such as the strip mining and mountaintop removal of coal. 1 Nuclear energy Nuclear fission Nuclear power stations use nuclear fission to generate energy by the reaction of uranium-235 inside a nuclear reactor.

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