By Stephen J. Simpson and Jeacuterocircme Casas (Eds.)

This most modern quantity during this sequence includes articles at the body structure of human and animal ailment vectors.

* Contributions from the best researchers in entomology * Discusses the physiological range in bugs * contains in-depth stories with worthwhile info for numerous entomology disciplines

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3 THE MODULATION OF HOST-SEEKING ACTIVITY BY REPRODUCTION The relationship between reproduction and feeding in mosquitoes, underlying the generation of gonotrophic cycles, is a classical topic in the study of insect physiology. It has been mostly analysed in female mosquitoes, in which oogenesis depends on a blood meal, the relationship between blood feeding and reproduction, and endocrine factors (Klowden, 1997). Once the gonadotrophic 40 CLAUDIO R. LAZZARI cycle has started, host-seeking activity is inhibited until the oocytes have matured or oviposition has occurred, depending on the species (Klowden and Briegel, 1994).

In this section, we will discuss some of the processes that occur in an intermediate stage, between sensory reception and behaviour. We will firstly define the three levels of information processing, determining how animals acquire and make use of information to locate resources. The first level of processing is ‘‘reception,’’ which refers to peripheral events in the sensory organs, occurring as a consequence of a change in the physical or chemical properties of the environment. In physiological terms, this phase determines the type of variables the sensory system of a given animal is potentially able to detect.

2002, 2004). Many inductive studies, based on statistical surveys, have also been carried out. The differences in host attractiveness have been related to age, sex, pregnancy, hygiene, blood group, physiological state and others. However, the major factors and mechanisms involved remain unclear: predictions have not been tested and experimental studies have mostly been based on small numbers of human subjects. Indeed, the insects are generally considered as the experimental unit, despite the fact that the question concerns human subjects.

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