By Theodor Finkelstein

The unique Air Engines (also referred to as a warmth, scorching air, caloric, or Stirling engines), predated the trendy inner combustion engine. This early engine layout continually had nice capability for top efficiency/low emission energy new release. despite the fact that, the first quandary to its functional use some time past has been the inability of sufficiently heat-resistant fabrics. This quandary has now been eradicated as a result of the higher Read more...


the unique Air Engines (also referred to as a warmth, scorching air, caloric, or Stirling engines), predated the fashionable inner combustion engine. This publication assesses the improvement of the air engine, and Read more...

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Extra info for Air engines : the history, science, and reality of the perfect engine

Sample text

Installation in a foundry in Dundee which is shown in Fig. 7. This was an old beam engine which had been rebuilt to Stirling’s specifications. , its bore and stroke were 1 ft 4 in and 4 ft respectively, and it ran at the sedate speed of 30 r/min. The minimum and maximum cycle pressures were 10 and 15 atm and the terminal air temperatures were 100° and 600 °F respectively. 5 lb per brake horsepower-hour (Stirling 1845). p. per cubic foot swept volume – a figure too good to be true. The engine was first started up in March 1843, and seems to have run satisfactorily until a cylinder bottom burned out in December 1845.

With the improved models, where the cylinder bottom was exposed directly to the flames, this was no longer the case, and water cooling had to be used. One disadvantage of these twin engines, when compared with the original single-cylinder design, was that the volume of the ‘cushion air’, or dead space, was relatively large, which diminished the compression ratio and hence the output. 31 times the swept volume of the working air (Popplewell 1897). 25 or less. p. engine, 1 ton per indicated horsepower was quoted so that the specific weight was probably more than 3 tons per brake horsepower (Donkin 1911) From experience gained with this engine, still further improvements were introduced by 1840, as shown in Fig.

Even after the science of thermodynamics had reached a stage which resulted in the development of two-stroke and four-stroke engines, there were still some who decried the importance of regeneration for air engines, such as Zeuner (he recanted belatedly in the third (1907) edition of his famous textbook), and most hot-air engines in use worked without a regenerator. It is recognized today that a regenerator is, in fact, the essential component of an air engine, and that the efficiency of a complete engine is largely determined by that of the regenerator.

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