By S. Fedchin

NASA Technical Translation. Translation of «Самолетовождение», Москва, 1966.

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Extra info for Aircraft Navigation (transl. from Russian) [NASA TT F-524]

Example text

Maps o n a n i s o g o n a l t r a n s v e r s e - c y l i n d r i c a l G a u s s i a n p r o j e c t i o n are used b o t h i n a v i a t i o n f o r a d e t a i l e d o r i e n t a t i o n and l o c a t i o n 26 ­ /31 o f t a r g e t s , a n d i n many b r a n c h e s o f t h e n a t i o n a l e c o n o m y f o r l i n k i n g p r o j e c t s , equipment, and r a d i o engineering f a c i l i t i e s i n a l o c a t i o n , 1 3 2 f o r determining geodesic r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s , and f o r a c c u r a t e geodesic c a l c u l a t i o n s o f d i s t a n c e s and d i r e c t i o n s , e t c .

Obviously, t h i s i s a system o f m e r i d i a n s and p a r a l l e l s . Division of Projections b y the Nature of the Distortions The c h o i c e o f c a r t o g r a p h i c p r o j e c t i o n s d e p e n d s on t h e p r o b l e m s f o r whose s o l u t i o n t h e y a r e i n t e n d e d . According t o t h e n a t u r e of t h e e l e m e n t s w h i c h h a v e t h e l e a s t d i s t o r t i o n on a map, c a r t o g r a p h i c projections are divided i n t o t h e following groups: 1.

13 The n u m e r i c a l s c a l e . i s a f r a c t i o n , t h e n u m e r a t o r o f w h i c h i s o n e , w h i l e t h e d e n o m i n a t o r s h o w s how many s u c h u n i t s o f m e a s u r e m e n t fit i n t o t h e location. - /19 F o r e x a m p l e , 1 : 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 means t h a t i f w e t a k e 1 c m on a maps t h e n 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 c m a t a l o c a t i o n ( i . e . , 1 0 km) w i l $ c o r r e s p o n d t o i t . A l i n e a r s c a l e i s a s c a l e on a map i n w h i c h a d e f i n i t e n u m b e r o f k i l o m e t e r s a t a l o c a t i o n correspond t o s p e c i a l segments of t h e scale.

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