By J. Eilenberg, Heikki M. T. Hokkanen

Biological keep an eye on is without doubt one of the so much promising tools for keep an eye on of pests, ailments and weeds, and this booklet treats ecological and societal features jointly for the 1st time. the purpose is to guage the importance of yes organic homes like biodiversity and average habitats. In a societal strategy phrases like ‘consumer’s attitude’, ‘risk perception’, ‘learning and schooling’ and ‘value triangle’ are well-known as major for organic creation and human welfare.

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Additional info for An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control (Progress in Biological Control)

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Situation and outlook report: Fruit and tree nuts: Value of citrus and noncitrus products. USDA, Economic Research Service. USDA 2002. Oranges: the most consumed fruit in America. Fruit and Tree Nuts Outlook/FTS-296/Jan. 31, 2002: 1214. van Lenteren, J. , Roskam, M. M. and Timmer, R. 1997. Commercial mass production and pricing of organisms for biological control of pests in Europe. Biological Control 10, 143-149. van Lenteren, J. , Hokkanen H. M. , et al. 2003. Environmental risk assessment of exotic natural enemies used in inundative biological control.

As the last step only, recurse may be taken to chemically-synthesised veterinary products or antibiotics, if other methods are not successful. Although these products are not of natural origin, their use as a last option is sometimes necessary for the sake of animal welfare. B. SPEISER, E. WYSS AND V. , 2005) A) Crop protection Insects Nematodes Adalia bipunctata Anthocoris nemoralis Aphelinus abdominalis A. colemanii A. ervi Aphidoletes aphidimyza Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Dacnusa sibirica Diglyphus isaea Encarsia formosa Feltiella acarisuga Leptomastidea abnormis Leptomastix dactylopii Macrolophus caliginosus Metaphycus helvolus Microterys flavus Orius insidiosus O.

However the outcome of the assessments can be quite different. This applies also to various biological control methods, which are described below in Table 1. To remind the reader: such discussions take place when standard-setting organizations evaluate inputs. However, there is no scope for such discussions at the farmer’s level; the standards currently in force have to be followed strictly. 1. Allowed or not? – Check against the evaluation criteria Some standards for organic farming provide criteria for the evaluation of inputs.

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