By Janet Moore
Moore's advent is short, yet informative. dependent within the ordinary layout for a zoology textbook, she covers the fundamentals quick and good, after which increases fascinating questions that pertain to no matter what phylum is in query. Having already performed coursework in invertebrates, i discovered this an exceptional refresher and nonetheless choked with issues i didn't understand (or had thoroughly forgotten).
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Extra resources for An Introduction to the Invertebrates
7). The division of labour between individuals in these colonies resembles that between organ systems in more highly organised animals.
Accordingly Cnidaria are said to be ‘diploblastic’, in contrast to WHY DO WE REGARD CNIDARIA AS SIMPLE? Fig. 1 Cnidaria: (a) polyp and (b) medusa forms; (c) longitudinal section of Hydra to show cell types scattered in the two layers. all other multicellular animals (except sponges), which are ‘triploblastic’, having three cell layers. 1c shows that cells of the same type are not arranged together in either layer (the slightly confusing description of Cnidaria as having ‘tissue grade’ organisation emphasises that there is no aggregation of tissues to make organs).
The difficulty is that resemblance between animals is not an entirely reliable guide to their evolutionary history. What makes animals resemble each other? It may be due either to close common ancestry or to convergence, occurring when animals of different ancestry acquire very similar adaptations because they face the same problems or live in the same environment. For example, any land-living invertebrate will have a skin relatively impermeable to water; this character is no guide to closeness of ancestry, it is due to the general need to avoid desiccation.