By John Maynard-Smith, David Harper

Why are animal indications trustworthy? this is often the crucial challenge for evolutionary biologists drawn to indications. in fact, now not all indications are trustworthy; yet such a lot are, in a different way receivers of signs might forget about them. a couple of theoretical solutions were proposed and empirical reviews made, yet there nonetheless continues to be a large amount of confusion. The authors, one a theoretician the opposite a fieldworker, introduce a feeling of order to this chaos. an important explanation for confusion has been the tendency for various researchers to exploit both an analogous time period with assorted meanings, or diverse phrases with a similar that means. The authors try and make clear those variations. A moment reason behind confusion has arisen simply because many biologists proceed to imagine that there's just one right cause of sign reliability. The authors argue that the reliability of signs is maintained in numerous methods, correct in numerous situations, and that biologists needs to discover ways to distinguish among them. during this publication they clarify different theories, provide examples of signalling structures to which one or one other conception applies, and element to the numerous components the place additional paintings, either theoretical and empirical, is needed.

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Additional resources for Animal Signals (Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution)

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The host egg or larva is seen to shrink rapidly, and after twenty-four hours the anterior part of its body is emptied. The parasitic larva then turns round and empties the rest of its victim, and after forty-eight hours only the dry remains of the bee's egg or larva can be seen in the cell. For the next three to four days the Grotea larva feeds just as greedily off the bee bread as if it were the bee larva itself. As a result, it grows considerably in size, and then makes its way to the next cell, where sooner or later it eats the host larva which it contains.

Trachelus tabidus F. behaves similarly. The Cephini of the genus Calameuta develop in the stems of couch grass and bulrushes. The principal food plants of the cephoids are thus the Rosaceae, with their tendency to produce both shrub-like and herbaceous forms, and also the grasses. According to Benson, the main centres of origin of the Cephidae must be where the temperate forests project into the steppes of Eurasia. The claim has also been made that it was in this zone that their food plants developed.

It is known that the enzyme secreted by the insect converts the starch of the plant cells into a sugar, thus performing the same function as the plant enzyme. The production of an excess of food material stimulates the activity of the plant protoplasm, forces the cell to proliferate, and causes the development of a gall (Frost, 1942). In addition, the inner walls of the gall are richer in protein than the parts of the plant on which it develops. An excess of concentrated food is thus found in the gall, and since the larva no longer needs to forage for food, it can develop in situ like the larvae of the Terebrantia and Aculeata.

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