By P. Müller

Zoogeography goals to give an explanation for the constitution, functionality and historical past of the geo­ graphical levels of animals. The absence or presence of a species in a given position has ecological in addition to old reasons. it truly is for that reason a mistake to believe that reconstructing the phylogenetic connections of a taxon will on its own supply a distinct photo of the way its diversity originated. A in simple terms ecological interpretation of the variety can be both deceptive if it didn't take note of the population-genetic constitution underlying the geographical diversity. Phylogenetic systematics, inhabitants genetics, autecology and synecology have all their very own equipment, none of which might be substituted for one more, with no which a variety can't be studied or interpreted. the current ebook covers simply sure elements of the broad box of zoogeo­ graphy. those are within the shape within which they have been crystallised during innumerable discussions with my lecturers, my colleagues at domestic and overseas and my fellow employees, postgraduates and scholars at Saarbriicken, in addition to within the zoogeographical a part of may possibly simple lectures on biogeography for the 12 months 1973-1974. the executive emphasis is laid at the genetic and ecological macro­ constitution of the biosphere as an area for variety constructions and diversity dynamics, on city ecosystems, that have hitherto been grossly ignored, and at the newest historical past of levels (the dispersal centre concept). The marine and fresh-water biocycles, nevertheless, were dealt simply briefly.

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The introduction of non-indigenous species of animals leads in most cases to considerable disturbance of the indigenous communities, or even to catastrophes. Damage of totally unforeseen extent can occur. This is shown for example by the history of the introduction of the musk rat into Central Europe (Ondatra zibethicus zibethicus cf. PIETSCH 1970), and of the Colorado beetle into the same area. Similar examples are the introduction of the rabbit into Australia (cf. RATCLIFFE 1959) or of the giant snail Achatina julica into South-east Asia.

Attempts are now being made to control it by the use of viruses, of poisoned bait and of its natural enemies among snails in the genea Gonaxis and Euglandina. The dates of introduction of A. julica into the places that it has colonised are as follows: Madagascar 1761, Mauritius 1803, Reunion 1821, Seychelles 1840, Calcutta 1847, Mussoori in the foothills of the Himalayas 1848, Com oro Islands 1860, Ceylon 1900, Bombay 1910, Malayan Peninsula 1910, Singapore 1910, Riau Archipelago 1924, Borneo 1928, Amoy 1931, Java 1933, Formosa 1936, Hawaii 1936, Thailand 1937, Okinawa 1938, Bonin Islands 1938, Palau Islands 1938, Sumatra 1939, Caroline Islands 1939, Mariana Islands 1939, Marshall Islands 1939, New Ireland 1940, Hong Kong 1941, Manila 1943, New Guinea, '943 New Britain 1943, California 1946, Florida 1966.

If the lines of separation proposed by a number of biogeographers were to be drawn on a map of north Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, the Sahara would ce covered by a positive network of boundaries. The Sahara is not a uniform desert. In its driest central parts there are isolated blocks of mountains, such as Tibesti, Hoggar and Air. In these, Holarctic species spread far to the south while Aethiopian species reach northwards. Fig. 33. The boundaries between the Palaearctic and Aethiopian realms as proposed by various authors.

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