By Maoz, Dan
A concise yet thorough creation to the observational info and theoretical thoughts underlying glossy astronomy, Astrophysics in a Nutshell is designed for complex undergraduate technological know-how majors taking a one-semester path. This well-balanced and updated textbook covers the necessities of contemporary astrophysics--from stars to cosmology--emphasizing the typical, accepted actual ideas that govern astronomical phenomena, and the interaction among thought and observation.
In addition to conventional themes equivalent to stellar remnants, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, Astrophysics in a Nutshell introduces matters on the vanguard of contemporary learn, together with black holes, darkish subject, gravitational lensing, and darkish strength, all up-to-date with the various most recent observational effects. to assist actual knowing, mathematical derivations are saved as basic, brief, and transparent as attainable, and order-of-magnitude estimates, dimensional research, and scaling arguments are often used. those no-nonsense, "back-of-the-envelope" calculations educate scholars to imagine like physicists. The ebook is abundantly illustrated with easy, transparent figures and every bankruptcy ends with a suite of problems.
In addition to serving as a direction textbook, Astrophysics in a Nutshell is a perfect evaluate for a qualifying examination and a convenient reference for academics and researchers.
The so much concise and updated astrophysics textbook for technological know-how majors
Contains a wide and well-balanced collection of conventional matters and present study topics
Uses uncomplicated, brief, and transparent derivations of actual results
Trains scholars within the crucial talents of order-of-magnitude analysis
Includes educating issues of every one bankruptcy
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Extra resources for Astrophysics in a Nutshell (aka Basic Astrophysics)
Photons with energies equal to those of individual quantum energy transitions of those atoms and molecules will be preferentially basicastro4 18 October 26, 2006 CHAPTER 2 absorbed, and therefore depleted, from the light emerging from the photosphere of the star in the direction of a distant observer. The same atom or molecule, which will be excited to a higher energy level by absorbing a photon, can eventually decay radiatively and re-emit a photon of the same energy. However, the re-emitted photon will have a random direction, which will generally be different from the original direction toward the observer.
The same atom or molecule, which will be excited to a higher energy level by absorbing a photon, can eventually decay radiatively and re-emit a photon of the same energy. However, the re-emitted photon will have a random direction, which will generally be different from the original direction toward the observer. Furthermore, the atom can undergo collisional de-excitation, in which it transfers its excitation energy to the other particles in the gas. The wavelengths and strengths of the main absorption features, or absorption lines as they are often called, are primarily dependent on the level of ionization and excitation of the gas.
There is a continuous transition in spectral properties between types, and astronomers quantify this by assigning, after the letter, a number between 0 and 9, with a larger number indicating a lower temperature. The Sun is a G2 star, and its spectrum is largely indistinguishable from that of any other normal star of this type. As we will see, all of the main physical properties (mass, radius, luminosity) of the stars sharing a common spectral classification are the same. For completeness, we note that the spectral sequence extends beyond M stars to two cooler classes, labeled L and T.