By Stanisław Adam Ślipiński; Australia. Department of the Environment and Water Resources.; Australian Biological Resources Study
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Extra resources for Australian ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) : their biology and classification
39 However, Sasaji (unpublished paper, cited in Sasaji 1971) made a careful comparison of characters among the cerylonid series and concluded that, in spite of apparent morphological differences, Coccinellidae are probably more closely related to Corylophidae than to Endomychidae. Both concepts were tested and confirmed as possible scenarios during the study on the phylogeny of Endomychidae by Tomaszewska (2000, 2005). The most striking morphological similarities between Coccinellidae and Endomychidae are among the Eupsilobiinae (Pakaluk & Ślipiński 1990) — the long penis and coccinellid like tegmen, and Mycetaeinae (Tomaszewska 2000) which share the distinct pronotum with sublateral carina and without subbasal impressions, the hidden mesotrochantin and similarities in the female genitalia.
The modern history of biological control dates from the spectacular control of the cottony cushion scale (Icerya purchasi) by the introduced vedalia beetle (Caltagirone & Doutt 1989) in citrus plantations in California in 1888. Yet the value of ladybirds in destroying aphids in English gardens was well noted at the beginning of the 19th Century. Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) was first collected on Icerya purchasi in Australia (mostly in the Adelaide region) by Albert Koebele in late 1888. According to DeBach and Rosen (1991), five shipments, a total of 514 specimens, arrived in Los Angeles between November 1888 and March 1889.
She found the univoltine R. ventralis fed mostly on Eriococcus coriaceus Maskell, while the probably bivoltine R. forestieri was much more polyphagous and exhibited varied behaviour. Multivoltinism with at least three generation per year is common in coccid feeders but has also been observed in other groups in warmer climates. The extreme case of this 48 phenomenon was reported from India in Synona melanaria Mulsant feeding on a plataspid bug of the genus Coptosoma. Afroze and Uddin (1998) reported that S.