By Lewis Stevens

The biology of birds is varied and often differs considerably from that of alternative vertebrates. Many birds migrate or fly at excessive altitudes, whereas egg-laying and feather construction locations excessive calls for on nutrient uptake and garage. This e-book is the one complete and up to date survey of avian biochemistry and molecular biology to be had. It emphasises the similarities and adjustments among birds and different vertebrates, focusing on new advancements. the 1st part offers with protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, its hormonal keep an eye on and the diversifications that ensue in birds. the second one covers the avian genome, gene expression, and avian immunology. development and embryological improvement also are mentioned. Avian Biochemistry and Molecular Biology could be of curiosity to all these engaged on birds, particularly postgraduate scholars and researchers.

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There are two main forms of vitamin D, known as cholecalciferol (D3) and ergocalciferol (D2), the former occurring in animal tissues and the latter in plant tissues. They differ only by a methyl group. The original vitamin Dj turned out to be a mixture. Cholesterol is synthesised de novo in all animals and is oxidised to 7-dehydrocholesterol. The latter, when present in the skin, acts as a provitamin, being converted to vitamin D 3 by ultraviolet irradiation (Fig. 5). Hence the requirement for vitamin D can be met either from the diet or by a photochemical reaction occurring in the skin.

10. Biosynthesis of ascorbic acid from glucose. 4 Vitamins Galliformes (kidney) Anseriformes (kidney) Piciformes (liver) Coraciiformes(kidney) Coliiformes (kidney) ClaSS A v e S i Cuculiformes (kidney) Psittaciformes (kidney) Strigiformes (kidney) Columbiformes (kidney) Gruiformes (kidney) Ciconiiformes (kidney) . (i) liver only Passeriformes- (,i) liver & kidney (iii) no activity Fig. 11. The capacity for ascorbic acid biosynthesis in avian liver and kidney microsomes in different orders of bird based on data from Chaudhuri & Chatterjee (1969), using the biochemical classification of avian orders as shown in Fig.

It catalyses the carboxylation of glutamate residues present in a number of secreted proteins from a variety of tissues. The effect of carboxylation of the glutamate residues is to increase considerably the Ca2 + -chelating ability. The first substrate to be discovered for this enzyme was prothrombin, which has 10 glutamate residues that become carboxylated (Gla). A number of substrates have been discovered from a range of tissues. At least four of the proteins involved in the blood-clotting cascade (prothrombin, factors VII, IX and X) become carboxylated.

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