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Whiting, A. R. (1949). Androgenesis, a differentiator of cytoplasmic injury induced by χ rays in Habrobracon eggs. Biol. Bull. ) 97, 2 1 0 - 2 2 0 . Wilson, W. L . (1950). The effect of roentgen rays on protoplasmic viscosity changes during mitosis. Protoplasma 3 9 , 3 0 5 - 3 1 7 . Zirkle, R. , Bloom, W . , and Uretz, R. B. (1955). Use of partial cell irradiation in studies of cell division. Proc. Int. Conf. Peaceful Uses-At. Energy, 1st, 1955 Vol. 11, pp. 2 7 3 - 2 8 2 . CHAPTER 4 From Nonlocalized Toward Localized Nuclear Effects Many of the topics to be considered in this chapter have a bearing upon some of the matters discussed toward the end of Chapter 3.

Liquefaction followed by gelation fits this scheme, and was actually obtained, first for the plasma sol of Amoeba dubia after ultraviolet exposures, and later with χ rays on Spirogyra filaments, although a certain amount of centrifugal force is required to break chloroplast moorings (Northen and MacVicar, 1940). Protoplasm was visualized as a network of protein molecules in which both dissociation and reassociation can b e influenced. Investigations extended to β rays and y rays from radioisotopes yield patterns of initial liquefaction followed by reversion.

Pelc and Howard (1955) avoided such complications by employing autoradiography. 4). When inorganic P is supplied to actively growing tissue such as the root meristem of Vicia faba, the radiophosphorus becomes incorporated into newly synthesized DNA. It is detected by autoradiography after the extraction of other Ρ compounds. Cells which 32 have synthesized DNA during the time of P treatment are labeled and are distinguishable from other cells. Results could have varied in two different ways: In contrast with unirradiated tissue, (1) fewer photographic grains might develop per cell; or (2) fewer positive cells may be obtained.

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