By W. L. Gates (auth.), A. Berger (eds.)

GENERAL advent TO THE ETTORE MAJORANA foreign college OF CLIMATOLOGY The "Ettore Majorana Centre" for medical tradition, based at Erice in 1963 by means of prof. Nino Zichichi, pursues the basic objective to create in Europe a cultural discussion board of excessive clinical usual, that could let younger examine staff to understand present difficulties of significant curiosity within the a number of fields of clinical study. , because the starting, its foreign faculties (over 70, at the present time) have actively labored in disseminating medical tradition produced on the such a lot complicated frontiers of human wisdom, spanning assorted domain names from biology to nuclear physics, earth sciences, meteorology, structure, clinical sciences and so forth, lately, in 1979, the overseas college of Climatology has been created with the aim to prepare post-doctorate cour ,;es, during which remarkable and updated outlooks, theories and leads to the climatic box needs to be offered in didactic shape. Climatic variability used to be the topic of the 1st direction, in that climatic adjustments signify essentially the most intriguing phenomenologies to check; actually, whether the weather has replaced again and again some time past, so making it average to as­ sume that it'll achieve this sooner or later, it truly is nonetheless hard to appreciate the above pointed out adjustments from an hydrodynamical element of view.

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Additional info for Climatic Variations and Variability: Facts and Theories: NATO Advanced Study Institute First Course of the International School of Climatology, Ettore Majorana Center for Scientific Culture, Erice, Italy, March 9–21, 1980

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I 10 ( ~\20~ . ~ l ;; 10......... 15 ~S ~ -10 _;~ /20\0. 15 10~· IS~ S S w~ ~~ -10 -15 -2. -10 Seasonal variation of temperature at 850 mb. ". ::;::::: -35 ,\20 0\-15 J~~""-l Q, ~ _ ' 3oL -35 [35. 1. 3 0 m 5~ 5 • -IO~ E 180 W 160 ~hc -5~ J:::~ - 5 -20 -5 -10 -10 if / • 140 500 , I ,,! / • [25 20 W -lOr -25 k'Ui:lCI/:;(y\)~ :illill/~t:U\;) ~J -35 -20. • =~~ ,00 AOUl _20~ "00 Seasonal variation of temperature at 500 mb. 0. 35 • ~O -25 -15 c3 Figure 7 120 40 10e

S closely linked with THE CLIMATE SYSTEM AND ITS PORTRAYAL BY CLIMATE MODELS the prevailing atmospheric and hydrospheric climate ; the record of fossil species as preserved in soils and sediments and the record represented by the varying widths and composition of tree rings are important sources of biological evidence of the progression of ancient climates (2). 3 have significantly altered the earth's vegetative cover, and hence have interfered with the natural biospheric component of climate (3).

Together with the rotation of the Earth, these properties determine whether the climate is dominated by convectIve circulations (as in lower latitudes) or by transIent baroclinic disturbances (as in middle and higher latitudes). " cQmpOne'lt3 c,f the cli'natic system. Of particular importance runong such coupling or feedback processes are those in110111ing the exchange of heat and momentum between the atmos- 11 W. GATES 12 phere and ocean as illustrated in Figure 3, As noted previously i the surface layer of the ocean absorbs most of the solar radiation reaching the earth's surface, and in turn much of this heat is transferred to the atmosphere.

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