By Christian Lininger

This publication analyses the potentials and outcomes of a metamorphosis from production-based to consumption-based techniques in overseas weather coverage. With the aid of an analytical version, the writer investigates the results of other coverage versions on environmental effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, carbon leakage, competitiveness and the worldwide distribution of source of revenue. the industrial, criminal and political historical past and the customarily contradictory findings on consumption-based ways are reviewed in nice aspect. within the ultimate chapters, suggestions for functional coverage layout are built. The e-book concludes swap to intake orientation isn't really a coverage device wherein industrialized nations can unilaterally enhance weather coverage effectiveness, yet may still otherwise be visible as a potential intermediate step as a way to a completely multilateral mitigation strategy.

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E. 4 A change of the target base from production to consumption has quite different effects from changing the tax base from production to consumption. So far this has not been discussed in the literature in any detail. But, as a clear understanding of this difference is essential when comparing productionto consumption-based policy approaches, the main arguments shall be outlined here. To simplify somewhat: a change of the target base alone affects the distribution of the costs of an abatement policy between different countries or regions, but will not affect the effectiveness of the policy.

To simplify somewhat: a change of the target base alone affects the distribution of the costs of an abatement policy between different countries or regions, but will not affect the effectiveness of the policy. Consider, as an example, the following scenario: A global conference agrees that every country should reduce its emissions by 20 %. This agreed target is defined in terms of production-based emissions. At some point, however, it is decided to redefine it in terms of consumption-based emissions.

Of emissions outside the “consumption policy base”—and these are the emissions embodied in goods F + X3. Now, if one wants to use carbon leakage again as a measure of the unintended effects of the policy (and thus of the loss of effectiveness associated with these unintended effects), the leakage formula has to be adapted accordingly (Steininger et al. 2014). 11). e. the emissions reduction target that a country wants to reach defines what is an “intended” and what an “unintended” effect (Steininger et al.

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