By Peter Brookesmith

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Likewise the pelvic girdle is modified with exceedingly long ilial shafts and a large acetabulum, and the end of the vertebral column is a long, bony rod to accommodate the complex, robust muscles involved in jumping. , ascaphids, bombinatorids) feed in much the same way as unspecialized salamanders. However, most anurans have developed a complex hyobranchial apparatus and associated musculature that permits them to catapult their tongues from their mouths to pick up prey. Once the prey is in the mouth, anurans retract their eyes into the orbital opening to help push the food into the pharynx and esophagus.

In contrast, in hemiphractine hylids, the usual larval stages are present within the egg capsules of those species with direct development. Possibly, the production of tadpoles in some species of marsupial frogs (Gastrotheca) is an example of Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia Vol. 6: Amphibians Reproduction Anuran reproductive strategies: 1. An eastern newt (Notophthalmus viridescens) carefully wraps her eggs individually in vegetation with her hind feet; 2. A tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) guards her aquatic clump of eggs; 3.

The diversity of lissamphibian body plans Salamanders Of the three living orders of lissamphibians, salamanders are the generalists. Typically they have elongate bodies, small heads, four limbs, a tail, and a sprawling gait. The rather arched, narrow skulls of most terrestrial salamanders are not well roofed; nonetheless, they have more bones than those of frogs and caecilians. A salamander skull also bears an additional articulation (total of three, instead of two) with the vertebral column. It is thought that this provides extra support for the head, for these animals lack the specialized trunk musculature that supports the heads of frogs and caecilians.

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