By Antonia Fraser

In Cromwell, award-winning biographer Antonia Fraser tells of 1 of England's so much celebrated and arguable figures, frequently misunderstood and demonized as a puritanical zealot. Oliver Cromwell rose from humble beginnings to spearhead the uprising opposed to King Charles I, who was once beheaded in 1649, and led his infantrymen into the final conflict opposed to the Royalists and King Charles II at Worcester, finishing the civil battle in 1651. Fraser indicates how England's status and prosperity grew less than Cromwell, reversing the decline it had suffered due to the fact that Queen Elizabeth I's dying.

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Some of the shot was noted as being carried on 28 packhorses, though an artillery of this size must obviously have required a great deal more ammuniton than that. Not surprisingly, the artillery train required numerous wagons carrying all the paraphernalia for supporting the gunners and guns. The artillery left Edinburgh in three sections between 18 and 20 August 1513, and the bigger guns were in position at Norham on the 22nd after covering some 50 miles - a remarkable feat, considering the poor state of the roads and the bad weather.

The admiral's whistle that hangs around his neck on a silver chain was not only a badge of office but was also used to convey orders and encourage the troops. His base skirt of red velvet is trimmed with the cinquefoils of the Hamilton family. 02: Seaman The attire of the sailor manning the swivel gun is based on items of clothing recovered from the Mary Rose. The doublet of tanned and tarred hide is loose-fitting to allow easy movement; it is decoratively slashed and 'pinked' on the torso, which adds flexibility to the leather.

Records state that the Scots deployed two cannon, one culverin moyane, one culverin bastard, one 'pas volent', and two other large pieces, as well as 20 small brass guns mounted on carts. Five hundred men were hired to serve them, to be led by a drummer and to rally under 'a painted banner of buckram'. However, when Arran decided to launch his attack on the English army he effectively negated his advantage in guns, since he had to leave the bigger pieces entrenched on the west bank of the river.

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