By National Geographic Society, Ralph M. Feather

This booklet is helping young ones to appreciate the full complexity and interdependences of alternative components of nature.

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Then they are wiped with paper towels in the same manner as the other dishes were wiped. Why is a control used in an experiment? 10 CHAPTER 1 The Nature of Science Aaron Haupt 544-S1-MSS05ges 8/20/04 1:24 PM Page 11 Repeating Experiments For your results to be valid or reliable, your tests should be repeated many times to see whether you can confirm your original results. For example, you might design your experiment so you repeat the procedures five times for each different dishwashing liquid and control.

For example, in the 1940s, Soviet scientist Trofim Lysenko believed that individuals of the same species would not compete with one another. His ideas were based on the political beliefs held in the Soviet Union at that time. Based on his personal opinion, Lysenko ordered 300,000 tree seedlings planted in groups in a reforestation project. He believed that the trees in each group would aid one another in competing against other plant species. However, the area where the trees were planted was extremely dry, and all of the trees were competing for water and nutrients.

Scientific fraud involves dishonest acts or statements. Fraud could include such things as making up data, changing the results of experiments, or taking credit for work done by others. Summary A Work in Progress Early people used mythology to explain what they observed. • Continuing Research After data are gathered over a long period of time to test a hypothesis, the information might be developed into a scientific theory. A scientific law is a rule that describes the behavior of something. • • Limits of Science Science is limited to what it can explain.

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