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Extra info for Effects of Coolant Concentration on Crud Deposition on Reactor Cladding [PWR Powerplants]

Sample text

This can be explained due to lack of nucleation and this region indicates heat transfer takes place through natural convection. The boiling curves begin to rise steeply after a point indicating the onset of nucleate boiling. Because of nucleation, the rate of heat transfer increases rapidly. The boiling curves rise steadily with an increase of heat flux. 8 bar). The boiling tests have revealed that the rate of heat transfer decreases with an increase of subcooling as can be seen in Figure 5-14.

This behavior can be explained by a change in phase of the water at surface of heater. The heat transfer between the heater and the coolant occurs by natural convection until the onset of nucleate boiling in the liquid. Beyond the saturation temperature, the heat transfer between heater and coolant occurs through nucleate boiling. The beginning of bubble formation is termed as nucleation. As the temperature of coolant is below its saturation temperature, the process is called subcooled nucleate boiling.

Figure 5-15 shows the heat transfer coefficients for 500 ppm concentrated boric acid solution. Figure 5-20, 5-25, and 5-30 represent the results of the pool boiling tests for 1000 ppm, 2000 ppm and 5000 ppm concentrations of boric acid, respectively. Figure 5-17, Figure 5-22, Figure 5-28, and Figure 5-33 show the results of tests for 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 2000 ppm and 5000 ppm concentration level of lithium metaborate, respectively. 1 kW/m2oC for deionized water indicating - almost a 9% drop. It can be observed from Figure 5-26 and Figure 5-27 that the presence of boric acid presence has a significant effect on the heat transfer rate.

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