By Lawrence B. Schein

The more and more very important and intricate know-how of electrophotography (also referred to as xerography), commonplace to most folk because the know-how in photocopiers and laser printers, is the topic of this publication, written for either the newcomer and the tested specialist. Introductory chapters acquaint the reader with the present prestige of electrophotography, together with its technical historical past and present and projected markets. substitute comparable copying and printing applied sciences also are provided. One bankruptcy bargains with the physics of the six procedure steps, with references giving entry to the unique literature. another bankruptcy issues out the demanding situations of the improvement subsystem, which determines the simplest replica caliber the client can obtain. major features of the program usually are not good understood and costly manpower-intensive empirical layout methods are nonetheless required. the rest of the publication involves a severe overview of the literature of improvement physics, an intensive remedy of static electrical energy, and a dialogue of two-component, monocomponent and liquid improvement structures. After gaining knowledge of this fabric, the reader may have a operating wisdom of the physics of the whole electrophotographic technique and an in depth wisdom of what's recognized and never identified approximately its most vital subsystem, improvement.

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They must have high quantum efficiency for the conversion of light to electron-hole pairs. They need relatively high mobility for at least one charge carrier so that the charge can traverse the thickness of the photoreceptor within a time short compared to the electrophotographic process time. In addition, they must have low trap densities so that trapped charges due to previous images do not distort subsequent latent images. Finally, they must be durable, nonhazardous, and manufacturable at low cost.

Instead of charging in the dark and exposing with light, a special photoreceptor is uniformly illuminated in the presence of an applied field. This separates charges which are deeply trapped in the vicinity of both electrodes (the need for deep traps distinguishes this photoreceptor). Image-wise exposure then releases the carriers from the deep traps, creating the latent image. Unfortunately, the presence of the deep traps inherently limits the carrier transport and photosensitivity. 22] the charging step is completely eliminated.

19]. 19,21], appears as a uniform blue-white sheath around the wire for a positive polarity; for a negative wire there are glowing bluish points spaced at regular intervals along the wire. 28]. They represent a significant source of nonuniformity for negative charging. Another important source of nonuniform charging (for both polarities) is wire contamination due to toner and paper dust. To produce more-uniform photoreceptor charging, a screen is sometimes added between the corona wire and the photoreceptor to produce a charging device known as a scorotron (Fig.

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