By C. A. Bayly

In a penetrating account of the evolution of British intelligence amassing in India, C. A. Bayly indicates how networks of Indian spies, runners and political secretaries have been recruited by means of the British to safe information regarding their topics. He additionally examines the social and highbrow origins of those informants, and considers how the colonial specialists interpreted and sometimes misinterpreted the knowledge they provided. As Professor Bayly demonstrates, it used to be such misunderstandings which finally contributed to the failure of the British to expect the mutinies of 1857. He argues, in spite of the fact that, that, even ahead of this, India's complicated platforms of communique have been hard the political and highbrow dominance of the ecu rulers.

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1849, North Western Provinces General Proceedings, Mar. 1850, 1078, 215/3, OIOC. H. Spry thirteen years earlier; the only record of his findings the author has found is in Friend of India, 18 Oct. 1838, where he remarks that there was 'no mutual connection between the vernacular and learned schools' but paints a picture of great variation between regions and classes in schooling. Of 1,458 vernacular schools in 'lower Hindustan', 968 were 'without written books of instruction of any kind'. B. ), Cambridge History of Japan, V, The Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, 1989), 67.

910, 1401; there are many more eighteenth-century copies of the work than seventeenth-century ones. The Manas managed to 'synthesise' Hindu tradition. 146 'Hindu Remedies for Cholera', Calcutta Journal, 2 Feb. 1819. 147 Paul Dundas, The Jains (London, 1992), p. S. McGregor, Hindi Literature from (footnote continued on next page) page_42 Page 43 translation of the Koran, first into Persian and then into Urdu, pointed to a new emphasis on the vernacular. 148 Anthropologists have criticised the assumption that the spread of writing itself necessarily changed consciousness.

Political turbulence might destroy caches of information, but it might also provide an incentive for a much closer recording of rights and duties by families who were otherwise illiterate. 138 It recorded the ownership and quality of lands and was an attempt to create a basis for a new consensus about ownership of property. 139 Paper records slowly became the preferred form of testimony in adjudications. , Abul Fazl's collection of exhortatory letters of Akbar became a book of instruction for Persian maktabs; on insha, Rizvi, Akbar, ch.

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