By Jonathan Israel

The war of words among Spain and the Dutch Republic used to be a key consider eu and global historical past. during this assortment, Jonathan Israel explores a number of the features of this many-sided fight, on the point of presidency coverage, army approach and international relations; and in admire of the differing fortunes of areas, cities and teams, and the Sephardic Jews.

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415-16,420-1. Consulta o f th e junt a deliberatin g contact s wit h th e Dutch , 5 Mar. S. Est. 2147 . lío Consulta, 14 Nov. S. Est. 2147 . 30 Empires and Entrepots settlement on terms close to those of 1609. Majo r concessions by the Dutch wer e essential. 151 From 162 3 until the start o f the Mantuan Successio n crisis in Italy in 162 8 the respective Spanish and Dutch stands remained essentially unchanged. However , the diversio n of Spanish funds an d troops to Italy in 1628, which very substantially weakened the Spanis h position in th e Lo w Countries , le d t o a resumptio n o f heavy pressure fro m moderates i n bot h Madri d an d Brussels .

G. 126 E . C . M . A . Batta e t al, 2 vols. (Maastricht , 1960-7) , ii, p. 200 . Consulta, 1 6 Feb. S. Est. 2328 . Th e liftin g of the river block ade was apparently proposed by Olivares, worried at the condition of Flanders, in January 1629 : consulta, 9 Jan . 1629 , i n Correspondance d e la cour d'Espagne, ed. Lonchay and Cuvelier , ii, doc . S. Est. 2322 . A Conflict o f Empires 2 5 the Brussel s administratio n wa s facin g a n exceptionall y difficul t financial situation. In German y th e Spaniard s wer e drive n fro m Wesel , Rheinberg , Lingen, Orsoy and their other lower Rhine and Ems bases in the years 1629-34, an( * thereby los t an y remaining capacit y to damag e Dutc h interests on German waterways .

I n 162 3 a fourth ai m wa s added when , prompte d b y th e junta d e comercio, the crow n sought to exclude spices from th e Dutc h East Indies, previously a major import at Alicante, by decreeing that in future, whateve r merchant s an d ship s brough t th e spices , onl y Portuguese spice s registere d i n Lisbo n coul d b e admitted. 93 Thes e aims, despit e som e evasion facilitated by th e grea t strengt h o f local institutions i n th e easter n viceroyalties , were on the whol e achieved.

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