By Charles W. Heckman
Anisoptera is the 1st of 2 volumes at the Odonata in the sequence Encyclopedia of South American Aquatic bugs. The moment will treat the Zygoptera.
The Anisoptera volume encompasses the big dragonfly species. A short evaluate of the biology of the gang comprises illustrations of the most morphological gains in addition to explainations of other structures for naming the wing veins and different structures. this may arrange the consumer of the volume to comprehend the several names for a similar structures that he'll stumble upon within the literature.
The review is then by keys to facilitate identification of the grownup dragonflies and the identified larvae, allowing the user a excessive likelihood of choosing his specimens correctly. as well as anatomical positive aspects, the keys comprise the identified levels of the species, synonyms, and citations of literature within which additional info approximately each one person species should be obtained. those citations are compiled in an in depth bibliography, together with titles of the unique courses within which descriptions of just about all South American species appeared. even if taxonomic revisions are intentionally kept away from, feedback for extra learn are supplied the place the validity of taxa turns out doubtful.
To give you the person with the very best chance to tell apart the species, the keys are richly illustrated with pen and ink drawings of hundreds of thousands of person morphological constructions prepared in 797 figures. it truly is definite that major alterations will ensue within the systematics of South American dragonflies sooner or later, and this e-book should still give you the impetus had to speed up the revisional work. in the meantime, it is going to offer a entire review of the Anisoptera in South the United States that's in a different way unavailable to most South American scien
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Extra info for Encyclopedia of South American Aquatic Insects: Odonata - Anisoptera
In addition, adults placed in formalin must first be fully moistened with ethanol to keep them from floating on the surface of the liquid and failing to be effectively preserved. I have often observed the wings or legs of aquatic insects becoming distorted during the preservation process in formalin, making them difficult to examine. For this reason, as well as the health hazards of working with it, I cannot recommend formalin for long-term preservation. However, specimens may be fixed in ether, a mixture of formalin and alcohol, or acetic acid mixtures and then transferred to ethanol as soon as possible after fixation to avoid serious distortion.
It is therefore strongly recommended to collect larvae alive and allow them to complete their metamorphosis before preserving them together with their larval exuviae. In the case of reared dragonflies, a word of caution is needed concerning teneral specimens. After insects molt, they require time for the chitinous parts to harden and assume their normal coloration. This applies both to the individual larval instars and to the adults. Dragonflies tend to require a period lasting from several hours to several days to complete this precess, and a specimen captured during the first day or so after molting is likely to be more subject to distortion of the structures used for identification.
If emerging adults cannot be found together with their exuviae, parallel collections of larvae and adults from individual water bodies is sometimes relied upon by taxonomists to correctly match individual larval forms with the corresponding adults. In a few cases, however, congeneric species might be confused, so such efforts must be made with great caution. Descriptions of new dragonfly species or previously undescribed life stages of known species should be prepared in a way that can be readily understood by other scientists, especially those who have not specialized in the taxonomy of the group.