By David B. Audretsch, R. Thurik, Ingrid Verheul, Sander Wennekers

Without a transparent and arranged view of the place and the way entrepreneurship manifests itself, coverage makers were left in uncharted waters with no an analytical compass.

The objective of this publication is to supply such an analytical compass for steering how public coverage can form and advertise entrepreneurship. We do that in methods. the 1st is to supply a framework for policymakers and students to appreciate what determines entrepreneurship. the second one is to use this framework to a chain of instances, or state experiences. specifically, this publication seeks to reply to 3 questions about entrepreneurship: What has occurred through the years? Why did it ensue? And, what has been the position of presidency policy?

The cornerstone of the booklet is the proposed Eclectic idea of Entrepreneurship. The target of the Eclectic conception is to supply a unified framework for knowing and studying the determinants of entrepreneurship. The Eclectic idea of entrepreneurship integrates the several strands from correct fields right into a unifying, coherent framework. on the center of the Eclectic concept is the mixing of things shaping the call for for entrepreneurship at the one hand, with these influencing the provision of marketers however. the main to knowing the function of public coverage is thru opting for these channels transferring both the call for for or the availability of entrepreneurship by way of coverage instruments.

The findings during this ebook exhibit that, through the use of the framework supplied through the Eclectic conception of Entrepreneurship, it really is in the grab of policymakers to spot the determinants of entrepreneurship in a specific nation surroundings at a selected time limit. this can be crucial in formulating new public regulations to advertise entrepreneurship and, eventually, fiscal development, activity construction and overseas competitiveness.

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Additional info for Entrepreneurship: Determinants and Policy in a European-US Comparison

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An Eclectic Theory of Entrepreneurship: Policies, Institutions and Culture 35 The same contradictory impact on self-employment is true for unemployment, a variable closely related to the wage rate. When explaining spatial variations in rates of new firm formation, Storey (1994, p. 69) argues that: “…if unemployment is high, then more individuals would be prepared to offer themselves for self-employment, because of the shortage of alternative job opportunities. On these grounds high rates of, or increases in, unemployment would lead to higher rates of new firm formation.

The argument that ethnic minorities are more likely to become entrepreneurs than native people can be related to the margination theory, stating the importance of an (negative) event, triggering the start-up of new firms. According to this theory, the creation of an enterprise is not always the result of a deliberate and intentional act or a result of rational decision making. For most people, starting a business begins with the shattering of a previous life pattern (Veciana, 1999). For individuals or people who are unable to adapt to a social system, such as ethnic and migrant minority groups, their marginal social position is a driving force to become selfemployed.

Immigrants are therefore considered to have an appropriate attitude or set of mind to start a business. Moreover, entrepreneurial activities of immigrants can be stimulated or constrained by specific factors that do not apply to native people (EIM/ENSR, 1993). Ethnic minorities 32 Entrepreneurship: Determinants and Policy in a EU-US Comparison often have a backward position in society, because of difficulties with native behavior, language and attitudes. The participation rate of ethnic minorities in the labor market stays behind and, when they do participate, they are often situated within the ‘secondary’ labor market occupations (SER, 1998).

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