By Dmitri N. Fedorenko, Sergei Golovatch

The current monograph is a hugely unique and thorough try out at revising the wing constitution of the beetles, with specified emphasis positioned not just at the venation styles saw, but additionally on folding. mixed, all of those styles are severely re-evaluated to supply new, hugely unorthodox insights in beetle evolution. The paintings can also be abundantly illustrated through unique drawings displaying the entire beneficial information of beetle wing constitution, together with form, venation, sclerotization and folding styles. the current monograph is crucial for college kids in beetle taxonomy, evolution and palaeontology. Dr. Dmitri Fedorenko, born 1962, is Senior Scientist on the Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. His major pursuits lie within the taxonomy, ecology, geography and evolution of the beetles, the ground-beetles particularly. he's the writer of greater than forty medical papers, together with the monograph "Reclassification of global Dyschiriini, with a revision of the Palearctic fauna (Coleoptera, Carabidae)", Moscow-Sofia-St. Petersburg: Pensoft Publishers, 1996.

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Additional info for Evolution of the Beetle Hind Wing, With Special Reference to Folding (Insecta, Coleoptera)

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As a result, the clavus and jugum become reduced in whole or in part. More often, this alteration is mediated or accompanied by an increasingly deep jugal incision, this tendency being general for beetle wings in the course of body miniaturization. Invertedly triangular (Figs A: 59, 142) or oblong-oval (Figs A: 109, 152, 172, 173, 187, 236), or semilunar (Figs A233–235), or more or less falcate (Figs A: 47, 62, 67), or, seldom, rectangular (Fig. A197) shapes are extreme specializations. Of them, the latter two have resulted from shifting the wing tip caudad while the others have anyway been related to reduced clavus plus jugum.

I designate it as m–cua, according to its relative position in the beetle wings, and avoid a discussion concerning its nature. Forbes (1922) termed this vein (anterior) arculus (arc). Later, it was re-named into a “medial bridge” (Kukalová-Peck & Lawrence, 1993). The vein M–MP, or the medial bar, has been retained uninterrupted in a few beetles only, some Adephaga in particular (Figs 25 and 26). In the other Coleoptera, M–MP having become desclerotized distal to arc, the medial bar evolved into a baseless vein, the recurrent media (Mr).

More specifically, it is not improbable that the anterior remnant corresponds to RP–(RP+MA) while the posterior one to m3. I rather adhere to the opposite in believing that m3 was totally reduced in all Polyphaga except Scirtoidea. It was either obliterated or first shifted onto, and then merged into, RP+MA as “Rr” was formed. Forbes (1922) recognized m3 as a true cross-vein, “r–m”. Kukalová-Peck & Lawrence (1993) considered “Rr”of Polyphaga and the RP+MA base of Adephaga, Myxophaga and Archostemata as quite different veins, r3 and RA3+4, respectively.

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