By Professor Eviatar Nevo, Professor Abraham B. Korol, Dr. Avigdor Beiles, Dr. Tzion Fahima (auth.)

This e-book is set the contribution to evolutionary idea and agricultural know-how of 1 of humankind's such a lot dramatic imitations of the evolu­ tionary strategy, specifically crop domestication, as exemplified by means of the progenitor of wheat, Triticum dicoccoides. This species is a massive version organism and it's been studied on the Institute of Evolution, collage of Haifa, because 1979. The domestication by means of people of untamed vegetation to cultivated ones over the past ten millennia is likely one of the most sensible demonstrations of evolution. it's a technique that has been condensed in time and complicated by means of synthetic instead of average choice. Plant and animal domestication revolutionized human cultural evolution and is the foremost issue underlying human civilization. A post-Pleistocene international upward thrust in temperature following the ice age, i.e., climatic-environmental elements, could have caused the growth of econom­ ically very important thermophilous vegetation and in flip promoted advanced forag­ ing and plant cultivation. The shift from foraging to regular construction ended in an incipient agriculture various in time in numerous a part of the area. within the Levant, agriculture constructed out of a thorough really expert exploitation of vegetation and animals. Natufian sedentism, by way of fast inhabitants progress and source rigidity, brought about by way of the increasing barren region, coupled with to be had grinding expertise, can have prompted plant domestication.

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Additional info for Evolution of Wild Emmer and Wheat Improvement: Population Genetics, Genetic Resources, and Genome Organization of Wheat’s Progenitor, Triticum dicoccoides

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2 Classification 13 Fig. 2. Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, ripe natural population from Qazrin, Golan Heights with some black morphs. (Photo by E. Nevo) Fig. 3. Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, spike colour polymorphism: black, green, and yellow morphs. (Photo by E. Nevo) 14 Wild Emmer, Triticum dicoccoides, Wheat Progenitor: Origin and Evolution phological changes (Ayala 1975; Avise 1976; Nevo and Cleve 1978; Nevo 1991; Orr 1991; Coyne 1992; Orr and Smith 1998). T. dicoccoides has a unique ecological niche in nature.

6%). (4) The northeast (Mt. 9%). 4%). 2%) (see discriminant analysis in Fig. 2, and Table 3 in Nevo and Beiles 1989). Moreover, 70% of all variant alleles were not widespread, but revealed localized and sporadic distribution. Likewise, the analysis of genetic distances between populations supports the conclusion, based on genetic differentiation and allele distribution, that sharp local differentiation over short geographic distances is the rule, and the frequency of some common alleles (> 10%) is localized and high.

To a large extent this progress has been due to protein electrophoresis and recombinant DNA technology (Nei 1987). Multiple molecular forms of enzymes, called isozymes, recognized in 1959 by Clement Markert, have served as powerful probes of molecular, genetic, developmental, physiological, and evolutionary mechanisms. Isozymes have been studied, or used as markers, in a wide range of biochemical and biological investigations. In population genetics, isozymes, and their allozyme variants, opened up a new era of evolutionary genetics studies.

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