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Additional info for From Shaykhism to Babism: a Study in Charismatic Renewal in Shi'i Islam

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34 Whatever the external economic and political forces which molded it, Babism may be said to represent the last example of an unselfconscious expression of Shiʿi pietism and messianic revolt untainted, as it were, by the context of modernism. As a movement which almost succeeded in overthrowing theQajar dynasty and establishing a new, theocratic state in its place, and as the only sizeable Shiʿi millenarian movement of the modern period, Babism has for too long been suffered to linger as something peripheral in the history of postSafavid Iran.

The collapse of the Safavid dynasty in 1722 precipitated a major crisis in Twelver Shiʿism. 85 But from 1722 until many years after the Qajar restoration at the end of the eighteenth century, the political confusion of Iran was to render doubtful the continued existence of a Shiʿi state in that country. 86 After the overthrow of the Safavids, many of the ulama, fearing for their lives or their religious freedom under the Sunni Afghans and later under Nādir Shāh (1688­1747),87 had fled to India and Arab Iraq.

Initially, it would seem, the fact that a Shiʿi monarch sat on the throne precluded any question of illegitimacy in the rule of the state. 118 Although the collapse of Safavid rule and the ensuing anarchy caused much harm to the ulama, this was little more than a physical and economic setback.

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