By S. I. Malyshev (auth.), Professor O. W. Richards M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., Sir Boris Uvarov K.C.M.G., D.Sc., F.R.S. (eds.)

The past due Professor S. I. Malyshev, who died from a cerebral haemorrhage on nine could 1967 on the age of eighty three within the teach whereas traveling to box paintings, used to be one of many most efficient eu scholars of the Hymenoptera, specifically of the behavior of solitary bees, a subject matter on which he had released many papers seeing that 1908, ordinarily in Russian. In 1935 he released a big paper on a part of his paintings, and that i helped to edit the e-book, which used to be in English. many years in the past a few of my acquaintances in California requested me if i couldn't convince him to accomplish his early paper on solitary bees, delivering if essential to organize for a translation. while I wrote to Professor Malyshev making this recommendation he not had the overall healthiness to supply a brand new paintings, yet he despatched me a replica of his contemporary booklet at the evolution of the Hymenoptera which he proposal will be worthy trans­ lating. Sir Boris Uvarov used to be more than enough to translate for me the bankruptcy and part headings, and it looked as if it would either one of us lot of latest floor was once coated in a hugely unique means. the reason of the alterations in behaviour that should have taken position while the straightforward, plant-feeding observed­ flies built into hugely really expert parasites or into industrious, nutrients­ accumulating, social bugs equivalent to the ants, bees, and wasps can good be considered as one of many significant demanding situations to zoologists.

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The host egg or larva is seen to shrink rapidly, and after twenty-four hours the anterior part of its body is emptied. The parasitic larva then turns round and empties the rest of its victim, and after forty-eight hours only the dry remains of the bee's egg or larva can be seen in the cell. For the next three to four days the Grotea larva feeds just as greedily off the bee bread as if it were the bee larva itself. As a result, it grows considerably in size, and then makes its way to the next cell, where sooner or later it eats the host larva which it contains.

Trachelus tabidus F. behaves similarly. The Cephini of the genus Calameuta develop in the stems of couch grass and bulrushes. The principal food plants of the cephoids are thus the Rosaceae, with their tendency to produce both shrub-like and herbaceous forms, and also the grasses. According to Benson, the main centres of origin of the Cephidae must be where the temperate forests project into the steppes of Eurasia. The claim has also been made that it was in this zone that their food plants developed.

It is known that the enzyme secreted by the insect converts the starch of the plant cells into a sugar, thus performing the same function as the plant enzyme. The production of an excess of food material stimulates the activity of the plant protoplasm, forces the cell to proliferate, and causes the development of a gall (Frost, 1942). In addition, the inner walls of the gall are richer in protein than the parts of the plant on which it develops. An excess of concentrated food is thus found in the gall, and since the larva no longer needs to forage for food, it can develop in situ like the larvae of the Terebrantia and Aculeata.

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