By Herbert Solomon

Themes comprise: methods smooth statistical tactics can yield estimates of pi extra accurately than the unique Buffon approach normally used; the query of density and degree for random geometric components that depart likelihood and expectation statements invariant lower than translation and rotation; the variety of random line intersections in a aircraft and their angles of intersection; advancements because of W. L. Stevens's inventive answer for comparing the likelihood that n random arcs of measurement a canopy a unit circumference thoroughly; the improvement of M. W. Crofton's suggest worth theorem and its purposes in classical difficulties; and an attractive challenge in geometrical chance provided through a karyograph.

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In n throws, therefore, the expected number of hits by either the point P or the point P' is n • (A/X). The expected number of hits counting both endpoints is A similar proof in three dimensions, with a similar diagram, will yield with X the volume of the cube of side Xin, (where Pr stands for probability). Therefore 22 CHAPTER 1 and and so again in n throws the expected number of hits Let us now calculate E(c). T=i $<• K c< = number of cuts on rth quadrilateral In calculating E(ci) we note that since a straight line and a quadrilateral can either intersect at only one point or not intersect, see Fig.

Given a pair of points PI, Pi we can determine them uniquely by four coordinates (X\, Y\,X2, ¥2)- Then it can be shown that the invariant measure over some region A is DENSITY AND MEASUREMENT FOR RANDOM GEOMETRIC ELEMENTS 33 FIG. 4 Consider Fig. 4 where p, 6 are the parameters for the line through the points Pi, P*. We wish to write dPi dP2 in terms of p, 6, t\, t2. Care should be taken in the interpretation of the directions of /i, t2. 4 verifies that Thus and and via exterior multiplication. Thus and the measure for pairs of points is a function of the distance between them in terms of the new coordinates.

This provides the random mechanism by which N great circles emerge. By letting N go to infinity we obtain the analogue to an infinite number of line segments in the plane. Then by letting the radius of the sphere increase without bound we obtain the lines in the plane. First Goudsmit presented a simplified version of the problem which can be solved completely without resorting to the Sphere. Assume a plane is then cut into rectangular fragments. The lines in each set are distributed at random in the following way.

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