By Patricia Crone

This research examines how non secular authority used to be allotted in early Islam. It argues the case that, as in Shi'ism, it was once focused within the head of country, instead of dispersed between discovered laymen as in Sunnism. initially the caliph was once either head of nation and supreme resource of non secular legislations; the Sunni development represents the result of a clash among the caliph and early students who, as spokesmen of the neighborhood, assumed non secular management for themselves. Many Islamicists have assumed the Shi'ite notion of the imamate to be a deviant improvement. against this, this publication argues that it truly is an archaism keeping the concept that of non secular authority with which all Muslims started.

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Farazdaq, vol. 1, p. 328 1 ; cf. p. 3293. The Umayyad conception of the caliphate 37 the justice of your hands you heal the sicknesses of breasts' ;94 'through your justice you have cured everyone who thirsts'. 95 'Come to Islam, justice is with us', as we are told. 98 Adherents of 'Uthmin held this caliph to have been an imam 'ad/; 97 Mu'iwiya was an imam 'iidi/;" 8 'Abd al-Malik was flattered as kha/ifat al-'adt,•• an epithet also attested for 'Umar II, 100 who elsewhere appears as al-imam al-'iidil ; 101 and both Yazid II and Hishim were described as imam a/-'ad/.

Islam itself was synonymous with right guidance,67 and it is above all with such guidance that the poets associate the caliphate. Thus it is with khiliifa and hudii that God has invested the caliphs according to Jarir. 68 The caliph is 'the kha/ifa of God among His subjects through whom He guides mankind after fitna', 68 and •the imam in the furthest mosque through whom the hearts of the perplexed are guided away from error'. 10 The Umayyads unite people on guidance after their views have diverged.

656, 11 where it is addressed to Sulaymiin). Both state that the Umayyads have inherited an exalted building(Jarir, p. 1, p. 2661). Ibn Qays al-Ruqayyit stresses that they have 'inherited the minbar of khiliifa' (no. 2 : I0). Cf. also 'Urwa b. Udhayna, p. 281 17 • In addition to the referenoc:s given in the preceding note, see Farazdaq, vol. 1, pp. 271 (the turiith of'Uthmin to which they were the heirs), 295, ult. ; vol. 11, p. n). l, pp. 169', (the one through whom God helped Mul)ammad), 312" (khalil al-rrabr al-m141tVa wa-muhiijiruhu), 901 (khalfl Mu~ammad wa-imiJm ~aqq and the fourth of the best to tread the ground).

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