By Ian Richard Netton

Essays on subject matters (migration, pilgrimage and go back and forth) as outdated as Islam itself and vital within the improvement of a sophisticated Islamic social order embracing a lot of Africa and Eurasia.

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Extra resources for Golden Roads: Migration, Pilgrimage and Travel in Medieval and Modern Islam

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Within the space of three or four years all of the dozen or so large bedouin tribes of Najd had subscribed to the movement, or rather certain of their branches had done so, and had established their own hujar inhabited exclusively or overwhelmingly by their own tribal units under sectional chiefs. Settlement in the hujar brought many immediate benefits: the colonies were extensively subsidised from the bayt al-māl with gifts of food, clothing and seed with which to begin farming. In addition the settlers had privileged access to the royal court where they were able to voice demands for further support and to influence broader policies.

However, we are told that did not go to Mecca at first but to , whence he sent expeditions to ‘Arafāt where skirmishes took place with Ibn alZubayr’s men. 30 There is no suggestion at this point that they tried to go to Mecca —it seems as if the could be completed outside. In another report we are told that Ibn al-Zubayr and his men sacrificed at al-Marwa because they could not go to Minā and ‘Arafāt,31 but we are not informed that and his men found it necessary to adopt similar substitute measures.

360. , loc. cit. , vol. 4B, pp. 51–52; Tārīkh, part 2, p. 430. , Tārīkh, part 2, pp. 232–233. , (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1927), pp. 81–84. 36 Note the report in Tārīkh, part 2, p. 167 that when Mu‘āwiya wished to appoint a member of his family to a governorship he would first appoint him to , then add Mecca to the area over which he had authority, and finally extend it to Medina as well. When the man was given Mecca, people would say huwa ’lQur’ān! , part 2, p. 1982. , part 3, p. 1644. 4 EFFETS PERVERS DU , D’APRÈS LE CAS D’AL-ANDALUS Dominique Urvoy Le thème de ce livre, ‘Hijra, et pose la question de la validité d’une vision centripète du Dār al-Islām.

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