By NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM

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Common practice during chloride ponding testing is to estimate the chloride concentration profiles and determine the “effective” diffusion coefficient as defined by Fick’s second law of diffusion (36), using the procedure provided in ASTM C 1556. The diffusion coefficient is “effective” because other mechanisms besides diffusion also play a role in the transport of chloride through the concrete and are lumped into this single coefficient. AASHTO T 259 provides for determining the chloride concentration at only two sample depths, which is not sufficient to accurately determine diffusion coefficients.

Desirability Function for Temperature Rise. Because the test for temperature rise is not standardized, each laboratory will have to develop a specific method of test and interpretation of the results. 23. This function stipulates that a lower temperature rise is preferred. However, because temperature rise, like free drying shrinkage, is only one of the many factors that determine whether a bridge deck cracks, this function was defined to downgrade mixtures only slightly for adequate performance or better.

38 mm] wide). Identifying the causes and preventing cracking in these structures is difficult and complex. Concrete develops cracks when local tensile stresses exceed the local tensile strength of the concrete. Tensile stresses in bridge decks are caused by temperature changes in the bridge, concrete shrinkage, and sometimes bending from dead or live loads. A combination of shrinkage and thermal stresses causes most early-age cracks. Shrinkage and thermal stresses develop in all composite decks, because the girders and decking restrain the natural thermal and shrinkage movement of the concrete.

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