By M. Henini, M Razeghi

Using lasers which emit infra-red radiation and complex detectors of IR radiation is expanding dramatically: they're getting used for long-distance fibre-optic communications and distant environmental tracking and sensing. hence they're of curiosity to the telecommunications and the army specifically. This publication has been designed to collect what's recognized on those units, utilizing a global crew of contributors.

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In this case we can optimize the detector material and multiplexer independently. Other advantages of the hybrid FPAs are; near 100% fill factor and increased signal-processing area on the multiplexer chip. In the flip-chip bonding, the detector array is typically connected by contacts via indium bumps to the silicon multiplex pads. The detector array can be illuminated from either l O 2 ~(a) 102p- LWlR 300 K -3 lo4 ' l L " Integration time (s) lo1' t I MWlR 300 K lo'/ " " i lI t 10' 8 1 , ' ' L ' I , ' ~ " ' ' ' ~ n ~ " " ' ~ l 10' Io2 Integration time (s) lo3 ' I I C " ' 1 1:igrirr 2 .

In these photodiodes the base p-type layers (or n-type layers) are sandwiched between CdZnTe substrate and high-doped (in n+-p structure) or wider-gap (in P+-n structure) regions. Due to backside illumination (through CdZnTe substrate) and internal electric fields (which are 'blocking' for minority carriers), the influence of surface recombinations on the photodiodes performance is eliminated. Both optical and thermal generations are suppressed in the n+-region due to the Burstein-Moss effect and in the P+-region due to wide gap.

22 shows typical current-voltage characteristics of HgCdTe photodiode at temperatures between 40 and 90K for a 12 l~m cut-off detector at 40K. Leakage current is less than 10 -5 A/cm 2 at 77K. The biases-independent leakage current, aids in achieving FPA uniformity as well as reducing detector bias-control requirements during changes in photocurrent. 22, in the zero-bias and lowbias region, diffusion current is the dominant current down to 60K. 3 For medium reverse bias, trap-assisted tunnelling produces the dark current, and also dominates the dark current at zero bias below 50 K.

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