By Laurie J. Vitt

This 3rd variation, now absolutely revised and up to date via of Dr. Zug's colleagues, offers herpetology scholars and novice reptile and amphibian keepers with the newest taxonomy and species advancements from around the globe. Herpetology is a quickly evolving box , which has contributed to new discoveries in lots of conceptual parts of biology. The authors construct in this development by way of updating all chapters with new literature, photos, and discussions-many of that have replaced our thinking.With a brand new emphasis put on conservation issues,Herpetology maintains to expand the worldwide insurance from prior variations, recognising the burgeoning reptile and amphibian learn courses and the plight of many species in all nations and all biomes.New info at the outstanding advances in behavioral, physiological, and phylo-geographical information offer scholars with the present study they should enhance their schooling and higher arrange their destiny in herpetology. * the newest taxonomy info* End-of-chapter discussions for lecture room use* ninety% new images, now all in complete colour for an better visible illustration* most up-to-date info at the intriguing and constructing herpetological groups in Australia, Europe, Asia, South and North Americas * New emphasis on conservation concerns surrounding herpetology

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Additional resources for Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles, 3rd Edition

Example text

All species in a genus share something) and that this similarity reflects evolutionary history. , the characteristics that species in a genus share have a common origin) and results in evolutionary “trees” that reflect both degrees of relatedness and time (Fig. 14). 14 Linnean taxonomy places organisms in categories based on overall similarity. Evolutionary taxonomy places organisms in clades based on relatedness (homologies), which has a clear time component. A dendogram based on Linnean taxonomy (a) contains many polytomies because categories are discreet, (b) can contain some “species” (A–F and G–K) that are “equal” in rank with similar hierarchical organization to the subfamily level and others (L in particular) that contain this structure only in name, and (c) has no time component.

The branching diagram shows evolutionary relationships as we currently understand them for extant tetrapods and three extinct groups. 16 An abbreviated cladogram of tetrapods illustrating monophyly, paraphyly, and polyphyly. The heavier lines and capitalized group names depict the monophyletic groups of Amphibia and Reptilia recognized in the text. The boxes define earlier concepts of Amphibia (polyphyletic) and Reptilia (paraphyletic). typically have called “amphibians” contains three groups (clades) with independent origins (polyphyletic), and the group that we typically call “reptiles” does not contain one of the members of the Reptilia clade, birds (paraphyletic).

Phylogenies are our best approximation of what happened historically, and they improve as techniques and sampling improve. Although we construct classifications, no true “classification” exists in nature; rather, classifications are hierarchically ordered lists of organisms that allow us to talk about them in a reasonable fashion. When we say “the family Viperidae,” most of us form a mental image of the vipers and pitvipers. To say “the clade comprised of the first snake (ancestor) to have only a left carotid artery, edentulous premaxillaries, blocklike, rotating maxillaries with hollow teeth .

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