By Frank Santi Russell

Cloak-and-dagger paintings was once as a lot part of the traditional global because the smooth. whereas contraptions may well switch, the rules don't: espionage in antiquity used to be simply as harmful, its stakes simply as excessive. with out Sinon, a double agent for the Greeks, Troy might by no means have fallen. Frank Russell reports spies within the old Greek global and provides interesting info at the nature of the nice online game, its gamers, its pawns, and their methods.Information collecting in Classical Greece opens with chapters on tactical, strategic, and covert brokers. tools of verbal exchange are explored, from fire-signals to dead-letter drops. Frank Russell categorizes and defines the creditors and resources of knowledge in accordance with their period, tools, and spheres of operation, and he additionally presents proof from historical authors on interrogation and the dealing with and weighing of data. Counterintelligence can also be explored, including disinformation via "leaks" and brokers. the writer concludes this interesting examine with observations at the function that intelligence-gathering has within the type of democratic society for which Greece has regularly been famous.This necessary and soaking up quantity is out there to any pupil of intelligence or historical historical past. All passages were translated, and context is equipped for old figures who will not be well known. Notes are broad and provide additional avenues of analysis for the technical or expert reader.Frank S. Russell has taught at Dartmouth collage.

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Seuthes: Xen. Anab. 41. Timasion: Xen. Anab. 22. Cf. Xen. Cav. Com. 16. One might infer from parallels that this practice was in fact hazardous—M. Claudius Marcellus and an accompanying force of about 220 cavalry and thirty light-armed troops were ambushed by Hannibal’s Numidians (who, says Polybius, were accustomed to lie in ambush for skirmishers and outriders [proporeumenoi]); the consul met his death in the ensuing ‹ght (Polyb. 1–27). Polybius censured Marcellus for exposing himself to danger: according to the historian’s opinion, a commander ought not to take such risks.

They are quite capable of quality vision . . e. reading by moonlight but their concentration drops off the more peripheral one goes and that contributes to the less than sharp peripheral vision mentioned earlier. 91. Xen. Cyr. 43; Aen. Tact. 24. Cf. Thuc. 3–4. 3–1 km. 94 Many a kataskopos haunting the shadows must have given thanks to Hermes that sentries carried lights and bells as they made the rounds. The life of Aratus provides further testimony: four men were patrolling with a light during Aratus’ covert assault on the citadel of Corinth.

Etc. 56. Aen. Tact. 5; cf. Simonyan and Grishin 54, 66. The contingents on the Pylos tablets were all divisible by ten, but it may be rash to speculate that this was the size of units assigned to individual observation posts. 57. 37), who observed that he could have watched from the acropolis of Ilium as effectively and in greater security—quite right, but perhaps less poetic. Aegisthus’ anonymous lookout watched for the return of Agamemnon from a skopie (Od. 524); the suitors watched continually for Telemachus from heights (Od.

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