By V. Hauff (auth.), Karl A. Stroetmann (eds.)

Technological development is a significant component chaping financial development. ultra-modern lifestyle is an instantaneous results of clinical advances and technical swap some time past. given that out of control technological development has turn into amenace to our good­ being and will truly probability our survival, it can be crucial to profit to control technological growth and direct leading edge actions in this type of demeanour that either deepest desires and social wishes playa dominant function in selecting the speed and path of technical switch. This calls for a greater figuring out of the approaches of technical switch, in their effect on and interrelationships with fiscal and social advancements and of the capability and measures in which either members and governments can impression and direct technological growth. To this finish, the Ninistry for learn and know-how of the Federal Republ ic of Germany and the nationwide technology starting place of the Uni ted States of the USA invited a bunch of students, company managers and civil servants to a one week seminar on "Technolo­ gical Innovation". The seminar happened in April, 1976, in Bonn, Federal Republ ic of Germany. such a lot papers provided at this assembly have been in particular ready for the seminar. With this quantity, they're made to be had to a bigger viewers to extra stimulate dialogue not just between students attracted to innovation study and know-how coverage questions but in addition between managers, union officers, civil ser­ vants and others at once or in some way eager about and tormented by technical change.

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Additional resources for Innovation, Economic Change and Technology Policies: Proceedings of a Seminar on Technological Innovation held in Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany, April 5 to 9, 1976

Example text

3 (1974), p. 258 et seq. 2 Uhlmann: The Innovation Process in Industrialized Countries 23 This four-phase pattern can be applied to all activities concerning innovations. A distinction is frequently made between inventions, innovation and diffusion. 1) However the entire sequence, from the creation of new knowledge up to its utilization, should rather be the subject of research. From the point of view of empirical studies, therefore, it is expedient to regard the manifoldly interlinked process of the exploration, development and application of new technologies as one whole.

Part One: The SAPPHO Project. Methodology Project SAPPHO was designed as a systematic attempt to discover differences between successful and unsuccessful innovations. The technique employed was one of p~ir comparison, where a successful innovation was compared with an unsuccessful lnnovation, any dlfferences between the two being noted. The criterion for the formation of a pair was commercial, being that the two innovations competed for the same market. The criterlon for success was also commercial, a success being defined as an innovation which obtained a worthwhile market share and profit, and a failure being defined as an innovation which failed to achieve this: they were not necessarily identical twins techni ca lly.

Subject to policy contral by good management practice. (d) may be regarded as errors of judgement arising from the uncertainty inherent in innovation. To some extent (e) may also be regarded in this light, although amenable to modification through better communications with the outside community, and better management intelligence. Although subject to management control (b) may present very serious problems of identificaUon or potential users in the case of radically new products and processes.

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