By B.d. Hames

An incredible replace of the hugely renowned moment version, with adjustments within the content material and association that mirror advances within the topic. As with the 1st versions, the 3rd variation of immediate Notes in Biochemistry presents the fundamental proof of biochemistry with special causes and transparent illustrations. it is also new and extended themes reminiscent of cytoskeleton, molecular automobiles, bioimaging, biomembranes, cellphone signalling, protein constitution and enzymes rules.

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Extra resources for Instant Notes in Biochemistry (Instant Notes)

Sample text

Hemoglobin transports oxygen in the blood and is located in the erythrocytes; myoglobin stores the oxygen in the muscles. Myoglobin Myoglobin was the first protein to have its three-dimensional structure solved by X-ray crystallography. It is a globular protein made up of a single polypeptide chain of 153 amino acid residues that is folded into eight ␣-helices. The heme prosthetic group is located within a hydrophobic cleft of the folded polypeptide chain. Hemoglobin Hemoglobin has quaternary structure as it is made up of four polypeptide chains; two ␣-chains and two ␤-chains (α2β2), each with a heme prosthetic group.

A hydrophobic leucine to a positively charged lysine or a negatively charged glutamate to a positively charged arginine), so-called nonconservative substitutions, since this type of change could have a major effect on the structure and function of the protein. Several hundred abnormal hemoglobins have been characterized, giving rise to the so-called hemoglobinopathies. Probably the best characterized hemoglobinopathy is sickle-cell anemia (sickle-cell hemoglobin; HbS). This disease is characterized by the patient’s erythrocytes having a characteristic sickle or crescent shape.

HbF has a higher affinity for O2 under physiological conditions 6 than HbA, which optimizes the transfer of oxygen from the maternal to the 7 fetal circulation across the placenta. The molecular basis for this difference in 8 O affinity is that HbF binds 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate less strongly than does 2 9 HbA. Near birth the synthesis of the γ-chain is switched off, and that of the 40111 β-chain (which is present in HbA) is switched on (Fig. 5). e. the same) between all of the species. These nine residues include the proximal and distal histidines which are essential for the correct functioning of the protein.

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