By Cui Bian

The publication mostly investigates the demanding situations that confront France’s precise twin method of upper schooling in dealing with internationalization and the recruitment of foreign scholars. This e-book specializes in the advance of the institutional thoughts in teams of upper schooling associations: collage and Grande École in responding to the possibilities and stresses of either Europe’s Bologna method and globalization.

The examine facts provides during this publication used to be accumulated from 4 neighborhood associations, Grandes Écoles and universities, considered one of every one concentrating on the social sciences and the opposite on usual sciences and expertise. Interviews with significant stakeholders within the associations, together with body of workers from overseas places of work, faculty/researchers and overseas scholars have been followed as important tools for info assortment. The thematic association of the findings in every one bankruptcy covers perspectives from 3 degrees of stakeholders’ and translates the implications inside of theoretical frames, akin to institutional theories, world-system concept, foreign educational dating idea and branding thought. Readers will locate this ebook either sensible and cutting edge in 4 key methods. first of all, in wisdom diffusion, revealing the mysterious veil of the original French twin larger schooling process. Secondly, in new wisdom creation, exploring a brand new topic of analysis and filling the blanks from past reports of the 2 teams of associations. Thirdly, in proposing new attention-grabbing attractions into present reforms in Frances’s better schooling and the way a ways rules of course dependency will ascertain powerful continuities with the previous as opposed to an inclination to homogenization in accordance with pressures from Europeanization and worldwide score platforms. ultimately, in exploring the measurement of interculturality and the interaction among researcher’s id and study process.

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The activity approach: In terms of categories or types of activities, exclusively focuses on academic activities • The competency approach: In terms of developing new skills, attitudes, knowledge in students, faculty, and staff, focuses on the human dimension • The ethos approach: Focuses on developing an ethos or culture in the university or college that values and supports intercultural and international perspectives and initiatives • The process approach: Frames internationalization as a process that integrates an international dimension or perspective into the major functions of the institution On the basis of these previous works, and considering the appearance of new phenomena of internationalizing higher education in recent years, Knight and De Wit produced their definition of internationalization of higher education and later developped it.

In order to better understand an institutional strategy, we should not only contextualize it at the national or international level, but also consider it on an individual basis by taking into account its functional system (governance, finance, pedagogical, and research activities) and development history. Second, the implementation of different institutional activities during the internationalization process is deeply influenced by national culture and norms and the culture of an institution, as developed over time by generations of former leaders, sometimes plays a decisive role in nurturing its approach to strategizing internationalization.

Nevertheless, a new social and economic crisis disrupted this prosperous development trend and introduced new problems to these two systems of institutions after 1974. 2 French Dual System: A Historical Product in the Global Context 33 strategies of internal qualitative development instead of scale expansion, which caused a large diminution in employee recruitment. The enterprises preferred internal promotion of working staff to hiring new graduates. The expansion of higher education and the reduction in employment opportunities caused serious diploma devaluation.

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