By Arshad Khan

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Extra info for Islam, Muslims and America: Understanding the Basis of Their Conflict

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He succeeded, in 1099. When the Crusaders captured Jerusalem after a five-week siege, they massacred the city’s Jews and Muslims. In 1144, Muslim captured Edessa, one of four Crusader states along the Palestinian and Syrian coast. That triggered the second Crusade, which took place in 1147. The Crusades effectively ended in 1187, when Salahuddin Ayyubi defeated the Crusaders and recaptured Jerusalem. Additional attempts were made, and a third Crusade was initiated a year after Salahuddin’s victory; but they failed to realize their objectives.

Second, he was committed to making Pakistan a nuclear power. According to Pakistanis, Kissinger warned Bhutto that unless he rolled back his nuclear ambitions, America would make an example of him; and they did so through their ally, the dictator Zia-ul-Haq. Pakistan’s Nuclear Bomb Pakistan, largely illiterate, is one of the poorest nations in the world and has an extremely inadequate technology infrastructure. When Bhutto took power in 1971, he embarked on a program to produce a nuclear bomb. India, a country 10 times bigger, had just intervened in the Pakistani civil war, sided with the Bengalis and defeated Pakistan, which led to its breakup into a truncated Pakistan to the west and Bangladesh in the east.

India, a country 10 times bigger, had just intervened in the Pakistani civil war, sided with the Bengalis and defeated Pakistan, which led to its breakup into a truncated Pakistan to the west and Bangladesh in the east. Realizing that Pakistan could never win a future conventional war against India, and that only a nuclear bomb could neutralize it militarily, Bhutto launched a nuclear program as Pakistan’s best, or sole, hope of defending itself; and the program ultimately was successful in producing a weapon.

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