By Gershon David Hundert
Lacking from such a lot bills of the trendy historical past of Jews in Europe is the event of what was the biggest Jewish group within the world--an oversight that Gershon David Hundert corrects during this background of japanese eu Jews within the eighteenth century. The event of eighteenth-century Jews within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth didn't healthy the trend of integration and universalization--in brief, of westernization--that historians are likely to position on the origins of Jewish modernity. Hundert places this adventure, that of nearly all of the Jewish humans, on the heart of his heritage. He makes a speciality of the kinfolk of Jews with the kingdom and their function within the economic climate, and on extra "internal" advancements comparable to the popularization of the Kabbalah and the increase of Hasidism. hence he describes the weather of Jewish event that grew to become the foundation for a "core Jewish identity"--an id that observed the vast majority of Jews into modernity.
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Additional info for Jews in Poland-Lithuania in the Eighteenth Century: A Genealogy of Modernity (S. Mark Taper Foundation Imprint in Jewish Studies)
Although there were Jewish craftsmen and merchants in Ukraine, all the sources agree that the most visible economic activity was leasing parts of holdings or various monopolies from Polish noblemen. The most common type of lease was of “propination” rights, that is, the exclusive right to manufacture, distribute, and sell alcoholic beverages, 27. VL, 7: 44–50. Technically, the word “disestablished” is inappropriate, since no o‹cial government act establishing the Council is known. Nevertheless, government documents over almost two centuries certainly granted implicit o‹cial standing to the Jewish institution.
8 These were from the wealthier stratum of Jewish society. The housing and provisioning of additional “mouths to feed,” that is, the young couple and newborn children, was possible only for the wealthier members of the community. Thus, in the families best able to provide heat, clothing, and food, the age of the mother at ﬁrst birth was likely to have been the lowest. 6. 5 percent. ” KH 94 (1987): 31. 7. Zdzislaw Budzynski, Ludnosd pogranicza polsko-ruskiego w drugiej polowie XVIII wieku: Stan rozmieszczenie, struktura wyznaniowa i etniczna (Pzemysl-Rzeszów, 1993), 1: 102–8.
Emanuel Rostworowski, “Miasta i mieszczanie w ustroju Trzeciego Maja,” in Sejm Czteroletni i jego tradycje, ed. Jerzy Kowecki (Warsaw, 1991), 138–51; Jacob Goldberg, Stosunki agrarne w miastach ziemi wielunskiej w drugiej polowie XVII i w XVIII wieku (Lódz, 1960). 13. Jacob Goldberg, “Polacy-Xydzi-Niemcy w Polsce w XVII–XVIII wieku,” in Mijdzy Politykc a Kulturc (Warsaw, 1999), 176. 14. William Coxe, Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden and Denmark Interspersed with Historical Relations and Political Inquiries (London, 1784), 1: 193.