By Reuven Firestone

Whereas there exists no facts so far that the indigenous population of Arabia knew of holy battle ahead of Islam, holy warfare rules and behaviors look already between Muslims throughout the first new release. This publication specializes in why and the way this type of likely radical improvement came about. Basing his speculation on facts from the Qur'an and early Islamic literary assets, Firestone locates the starting place of Islamic holy warfare and lines its evolution as a reaction to the adjustments affecting the hot neighborhood of Muslims in its transition from historic Arabian tradition to the spiritual civilization of Islam.

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81 The payment or receipt of the bloodwit paralleled the distribution of booty among the male members of the kinship group. Inheritance was also shared among the male members of the same group. This practice points again to the importance of tribal solidarity in pre-Islamic nomadic Arabia, since pasturage and other resources were tribal property of which the individual had only usufruct. 82 A major problem with the combined rules of the talio and revenge has been that tribal members tend naturally to value the lives of their own kin greater than those of more distant or unrelated groups.

Not only are those literary works that treat early Islam and the pre-Islamic era not contemporaneous with the age they treat, the earliest sources were compiled into their present form only 150 or 200 years after the end of the period in question. 13 This study relies largely on Islamic texts for primary source material, notwithstanding the acknowledged difficulties of working with such information. Modern ethnographic studies of desert nomadic groups have also been consulted but not relied on for the extrapolation of data except in exceptional cases, which are acknowledged.

18 The populations of South Arabia were largely settled in villages and towns practicing irrigation agriculture, but nomadic groups lived in areas not fit for productive farming. Notwithstanding the unique climatic and socioeconomic situation of South Arabia, there was common traffic and communication between it and the remainder of the peninsula, partly as a result of the caravan trade but, also, simply because of their proximity and the great success of South Arabian civilization. 20 South Arabian peoples occasionally migrated northward, and although the two areas were linguistically separate (and remain so to an extent even to this day), they easily communicated and most certainly influenced one another.

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