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Mol. Genet. Genomics 273, 207–216 (2005). 19. D. M. J. Biotechnol. 108, 171–178 (2004). 20. Wu, Y. et al. Life Sci. 81, 1332–1338 (2007). 21. P. H. Mol. Microbiol. 28, 1355–1365 (1998). 22. , Hosoya, T. & Ishikawa, Y. Novel pentacyclic compounds, F-9775A and F-9775B, their manufacture with Paecilomyces carneus, and their use for treatment of osteoporosis. Japanese patent JP11001480 (1999). 23. A. et al. Nature 434, 980–986 (2005). 24. A. et al. Science 317, 1400–1402 (2007). 25. Pelaez, F. Biological activities of fungal metabolites.

From our data it is clear that various GFPs are ‘accustomed’ to light-induced oxidation into a red fluorescent state. Thus, it is reasonable to propose that some point mutations could further develop this ability toward light-independent maturation of the red chromophore. In summary, the present work changes our general view of GFPs as passive light absorbers/emitters. Rather, an active role of GFPs in light-induced electron transfer should be kept in mind when one considers the biology of GFPs and potential applications.

1 online), presented an altered chemical landscape as depicted by thin layer chromatography (Supplementary Fig. 2 online). Previous work has shown the major SM produced by A. nidulans is the polyketide sterigmatocystin. To reduce background amounts of sterigmatocystin and its precursor, we also deleted stcJ, which encodes a fatty acid synthase required for sterigmatocystin production16, generating a double stcJD, cclAD mutant. HPLC profiles of stcJD extract showed the presence of two known metabolites of A.

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