By Valerie Ritter

Kama's Flowers files the transformation of Hindi poetry throughout the the most important interval of 1885-1925. As Hindi used to be turning into a countrywide language and Indian nationalism was once rising, Hindi authors articulated a North Indian model of modernity via reenvisioning nature. whereas their writing has formerly been obvious as an imitation of eu Romanticism, Valerie Ritter indicates its exact and specific functionality in North India. Description of the wildlife recalled conventional poetics, relatively erotic and devotional poetics, yet was once now used to handle sociopolitical issues, as authors created literature to recommend for a countrywide personality and to deal with a turning out to be viewers of girl readers.

Examining Hindi classics, translations from English poetry, literary feedback, and little-known well known works, Ritter combines translations with clean literary research to teach the pivotal position of nature in how modernity used to be understood. Bringing a brand new physique of literature to English-language readers, Kama's Flowers additionally finds the origins of an influential visible tradition that resonates at the present time in Bollywood cinema.

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Extra info for Kama's Flowers: Nature in Hindi Poetry and Criticism, 1885-1925

Sample text

Pratåpanåråyaˆ Mißra [1856–94], Bålamukund Gupta [1865–1907]) and the flourishing of literary dramas, many of them written from Sanskrit dramas, and incorporating Braj poetry with Kha®¥ Bol¥ Hindi.

In language quite direct and resembling (even in this southern style of Urdu) the language of speech, these verses are yet highly wrought, and based upon wordplay both entertaining and poetically intensifying. 33 Thus Urdu poetics—however briefly it can be discussed here—was fundamental to the poetic world of the Hindi author. The general educated public of North India functioned in the Urdu medium in the nineteenth century—Urdu was indeed the official language of court and administration in the North-West Provinces, Bihar, and part of the Central Provinces by 1837.

The Literary Eras and the Language of Hindi Poetry, 1885–1925 Any discussion of Hindi literature necessarily refers to the critical estimation of literary eras, and in fact, it has been the critical force of these eras’ characterizations that have made the period of 1885–1925 one lessstudied and less-loved than those following. What follows is an outline of the contours of the Hindi literary eras, and an explanation of what they have meant for understanding the poetry addressed in this book. The purview of this study of the “nature” that emerged in modern Hindi poetry spans three of the conventional “eras” of Hindi literature, beginning in 1885, the year of the death of Harißcandra, the father of modern Hindi, encompassing the Dvived¥ Era, named for its stern standardizer of Hindi prose, Mahåv¥raprasåd Dvived¥, and for its stern idealism and didacticism.

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