By Ibn Warraq

For somebody with an curiosity within the early heritage of Islam, this erudite anthology will turn out to be informative and enlightening.

Scholars have lengthy identified that the textual content of the Koran indicates proof of many affects from spiritual resources open air Islam. for instance, tales within the Koran approximately Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and different characters from the Bible evidently come from the Jewish Torah and the Christian Gospels. yet there's additionally proof of borrowing within the Koran from extra vague literature.

In this anthology, the acclaimed critic of Islam Ibn Warraq has assembled scholarly articles that delve into those strange, little-known assets. The individuals research the connections among pre-Islamic poetry and the textual content of the Koran; they usually discover similarities among a variety of Muslim doctrines and ideas present in the writings of the Ebionites, a Jewish Christian sect that existed from the second one to the fourth centuries. additionally thought of is the impression of Coptic Christian literature at the writing of the conventional biography of Muhammad.

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P. ³⁷ While those traits may be seen as necessary conditions for a liberal ethos, Carothers notes their embrace across ideological lines. e same is true of the other dening elements above, from equal citizenship to the freedom of worship: each is cherished instrumentally qua civic good in this ‘procedural liberal’ perspective. Indeed, the logic extends to the institutional basis of secular culture – the separation of church and state – that accompanies the autonomy of state and civic spheres in civil society.

Reasoning more intricate than ever, between the application of given norms on the one hand and of professional standards on the other. ⁴⁷ e problem is illuminated when one considers the standard bioethical guidelines that have come to be adopted by clinicians in the West, viz. ⁴⁸ ‘Do no harm’ (nonmalecence or darar in Arabic) as a rule of professional conduct may be well grounded universally as a starting point for the clinician; but determining what constitutes ‘harm’ and how to resolve conicts between the principles themselves (such as when the wishes of the patient clash with the obligations of the clinician) requires a degree of specicity that clearly takes us outside the realm of biomedicine itself.

Muslim intellectual and activist critiques – unlike those of their Western counterparts – are directed less at existing indigenous ‘models’ than at putative/emerging ones, even if they are acutely mindful of particular approaches (like the opposing ones of Iran and Turkey). e stakes range far beyond mere theory, to the realm of competing choices with far-reaching social and political implications. III Before venturing into the rationales for an ethically-oriented Muslim approach to civic culture, it is necessary to delineate the elements that dene the latter outside the bounds of liberal, conservative or other political ideology.

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