By Lillian Ablon;Martin C Libicki;Andrea A Golay;Rand Corporation,;Acquisition and Technology Policy Center,;All authors

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Additional info for Markets for cybercrime tools and stolen data : hackers' bazaar

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T 2006: Phishing attacks are “cutting edge,” although crude, rife with bad grammar and spelling, and obviously false websites—by today’s standards. e. phishing for SMS) come on the scene (McAfee Avert Labs, 2007). t 2006–2007: Ad hoc groups and individuals coalesce to more organized forums (mostly carders), chatter increases about hacking and further exploiting card data, home machines, or eCommerce systems. Groups begin to break out to sell software wares, exploit kits, access to hacked infrastructure, malware for hire, and surges in botnets.

There are cases of selling corporate espionage services to steal IP, but not through the black market (Glenny, 2009). , credit card numbers on a notebook pad), with transactions done by hand prior to the proliferation of computing devices. t Late 1990s–early 2000s: A shift of black-market activity begins, from being mainly individuals to mainly groups—but groups of those with close personal, cultural, or community connections. g. Shadowcrew, Carderplanet), and organizations start to get more organized and more sophisticated (by 2001, websites for goods look professional).

Thus, markets have seen more anonymous currencies and encrypted and stealthy communications. More of the market is hosted on darknets and through VPN services. While this trend does not affect reliability of products (some say it will make it stronger because only the highly vetted make it in), it reduces the accessibility and availability of the market. It also leads to much more intense personal vetting. The validation of person, product, and payment can all be tricky in underground markets. , forum administrators).

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