By W. Kosinski, A.I. Murdoch

Currently a lot examine is being undertaken, inside a variety of clinical and engineering disciplines, on macroscopic phenomena linked to liquid barriers. This quantity includes articles which deal with the modelling of such phenomena from various viewpoints. those works serve to acquaint the reader with the diversity of macroscopic behaviour that could take place at liquid limitations, to point a variety of aproaches to appropriate continuum descriptions and the problems of modelling non-equilibrium events, to illustrate functions of continuum versions to the answer of useful difficulties, and to express due appreciation of experimental features of the topic. the categorical issues addressed are phenomenological techniques to fluid-flute interfaces and the actual interpretation of linked options and amounts, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical physics of liquid-vapour interfaces, the physics of ice-water phase-change surfaces, and the prediction of static and dynamic touch angles, wetting and spreading.

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14) Remarks 1. As discussed in Murdoch (1985) in the context of bulk continua, {3 has the interpretation of a binding energy 30 per unit mass when interactions are delivered by separation-dependent pair potentials. 12) is simply the sum of the (specific) heat content h with the {specific) binding energy, when the latter is meaningful. 31 2. 15) with C and e replaced by C and e, respectively. ) 3. I(Vsu)T = Ju(a- &). 15) E That is, the energy needed to assemble the interfacial particles from a state of infinite dispersion.

1 v; is well-approximated by v;- u(x)- V 8 u(x)P(x)(xi- x). 11) Here P(x) denotes the perpendicular projection of vectors upon the tangent space to Sat x and 'V 8 u denotes the surface gradient (cf. Appendix) of u. 2 lim€ { L 'm;(x; - x)/ A€ ~} = 0. 12) the sum is over all particles within any walled interfacial E-cell centred at x with base area AE at the end of the averaging period ( E "' 10- 5 m,~ macroscopically small: cf. 296 for the three-dimensional analogue). Finally, we here make the first (of two) thermal motion assumption (cf.

V < 0 and sj = -1. If the interfacial stress is tension-like, that is 38 A. I. 23) Suppose that -D is a sudace pressure p and T a sudace tension -y; that is, -D = -p1 and T =-y1, where p, -y > 0 and 1 denotes the identity on the tangent space. 24) where (p + -y) =: -y' > p > 0. 25) provide unequivocal evidence of the net cohesive effect of intedacial molecular interactions. Said differently, the existence of sudace tension indicates that the resultant molecular interaction average represented by -y' is not only positive (evidence of net attraction) but exceeds the diffusive pressure p.

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