By Robert F. Weaver

Molecular Biology, 2/e emphasizes the experimental facts and effects that help the strategies of molecular biology: DNA transcription, translation, replication, and service. Experimental tools are generally lined. The textual content presumes a previous direction ordinarily genetics.

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The total three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide is its tertiary structure. 6 illustrates how the protein myoglobin folds up into its tertiary structure. Elements of secondary structure are apparent, especially the several α-helices of the molecule. Note the overall roughly spherical shape of myoglobin. Most polypeptides take this form, which we call globular. 7 is a different representation of protein structure called a ribbon model. This model depicts the tertiary structure of the catalytic core common to all members of a group of enzymes known as protein kinases.

Overview of Gene Expression As we have seen, producing a protein from information in a DNA gene is a two-step process. The first step is synthesis of an RNA that is complementary to one of the strands of DNA. This is called transcription. In the second step, called translation, the information in the RNA is used to make a polypeptide. Such an informational RNA is called a messenger RNA (mRNA) to denote the fact that it carries information—like a message—from a gene to the cell’s protein factories.

That is, it holds the information for making one of the key molecules of life, an RNA. The sequence of bases in the RNA depends directly on the sequence of bases in the gene. Most of these RNAs, in turn, serve as templates for making other critical cellular molecules, proteins. The production of a protein from a DNA blueprint is called gene expression. Chapters 6–19 deal with various aspects of gene expression. 2. A gene can be replicated. This duplication is very faithful, so the genetic information can be passed essentially unchanged from generation to generation.

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