By Syozo Osawa Sc.D., Zhi-Hui Su Ph.D., Yûki Imura (auth.)
Carabid flooring beetles, often referred to as "walking jewels", are one of the so much completely investigated bugs on the planet. This booklet provides the result of molecular phylogenetic analyses of 2000 specimens, together with 350 species and that conceal greater than ninety% of the recognized genera, from 500 localities in 35 international locations. those complete analyses utilizing mitochondrial DNA-based courting recommend that carabid diversification came about approximately forty to 50 million years in the past as an explosive radiation of the most important genera, coinciding with the collision of the Indian subcontinent and Eurasian land mass. The analyses additionally bring about magnificent conclusions suggesting discontinuous evolution and parallel morphological evolution. With a variety of colour illustrations, this e-book offers readers with the dynamic ideas of evolution and the impressive geographic historical past of the earth as printed by means of the examine of beetles.
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Additional info for Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Carabid Ground Beetles
Morawitzi (Ml. Daisetsu, Hokkaido, Japan) 35 '-------I Cy. morawitzi(Iwate, Japan) Cy. morawitzi (Sarnani, Hokkaido, Japan) . . - - - - - - - - - - - - -Cy. ponticus (Ordu, NE. Turkey) 17 r-"1"' 00'-i Cy. aeneus anatolicus (S. Saturni, Gruziya) Cy. aeneusanatolicus (Ml. Karcal-Dag, NE. Turkey) 45 I C y. aeneus starcki (W. Caucasus, Russia) 1m 80 Cy. aeneus starcki (W. Caucasus, Russia) Cy. aeneus starcki(W. Caucasus, Ru ssia) Cy. aeneusstarcki (W. Caucasus, Russia) 32 20, . - - - - - - - - - - - Cy.
Ce. --- Ce. suturalis (Chile) ' - - - - - - - - - - - - Ce. buqueti (Chile) , . - - - - - Scaphinotus(lrichroa) viridis (W. Virginia, USA) ' - - - - - - Sc. ) viduus (Pennsylvania, USA) . - - - - - - - Sc. (Nomaretus) bi/obus (Michigan, USA) . - - - - - - - Sc. (Stenocantharus) ridingsi(W. Virginia, USA) Sc. ) valentini(W. Virginia, USA) ' - - - - - -100-1 Sc. ) andre wsii (Pen nsylvan ia, USA) . . - - - - - - - - - - - -Sc. (Brennus) marginatus (Washington, USA) Sc.
However, there is no guarantee that a fossil species in problem did not inhabit before its discovery. When the time of isolation between two or more species or races divided by a geographic barrier is known, the evolutionary distance between them can be used to set the time scale. 1 DNA of Carabid Beetles Used in this Study The samples collected and used in this study cover almost the entire distribution range of carabid beetles (Fig. 1). Specimens come from more than 500 locations in about 35 countries.